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Java Fundamental Classes Reference

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Math

Name

Math

Synopsis

Class Name:

java.lang.Math

Superclass:

java.lang.Object

Immediate Subclasses:

None

Interfaces Implemented:

None

Availability:

JDK 1.0 or later

Description

The Math class contains constants for the mathematical values pi and e. The class also defines methods that compute various mathematical functions, such as trigonometric and exponential functions. All of these constants and methods are static. In other words, it is not necessary to create an instance of the Math class in order to use its constants and methods. In fact, the Math class does not define any public constructors, so it cannot be instantiated.

To ensure that the methods in this class return consistent results under different implementations of Java, all of the methods use the algorithms from the well-known Freely-Distributable Math Library package, fdlibm. This package is part of the network library netlib. The library can be obtained through the URL http://netlib.att.com. The algorithms used in this class are from the version of fdlibm dated January 4, 1995. fdlibm provides more than one definition for some functions. In those cases, the "IEEE 754 core function" version is used.

Class Summary

public final class java.lang.Math extends java.lang.Object {
    // Constants
    public static final double E;
    public static final double PI;
    // Class Methods
    public static int abs(int a);
    public static long abs(long a);
    public static float abs(float a);
    public static double abs(double a);
    public static native double acos(double a);
    public static native double asin(double a);
    public static native double atan(double a);
    public static native double atan2(double a, double b);
    public static native double ceil(double a);
    public static native double cos(double a);
    public static native double exp(double a);
    public static native double floor(double a);
    public static native double IEEEremainder(double f1, double f2);
    public static native double log(double a);
    public static int max(int a, int b);
    public static long max(long a, long b);
    public static float max(float a, float b);
    public static double max(double a, double b);
    public static int min(int a, int b);
    public static long min(long a, long b);
    public static float min(float a, float b);
    public static double min(double a, double b);
    public static native double pow(double a, double b);
    public static synchronized double random();
    public static native double rint(double a);
    public static int round(float a);
    public static long round(double a);
    public static native double sin(double a);
    public static native double sqrt(double a);
    public static native double tan(double a);
}

Constants

E

public static final double E = 2.7182818284590452354

Description

The value of this constant is e, the base for natural logarithms.

PI

public static final double PI = 3.14159265358979323846

Description

The value for this constant is pi.

Class Methods

abs

public static double abs(double a)

Parameters

a

A double value.

Returns

The absolute value of its argument.

Description

This method returns the absolute value of its argument.

If the argument to this method is negative or positive zero, the method should return positive zero. If the argument is positive or negative infinity, the method returns positive infinity. If the argument is NaN, the method returns NaN.

public static float abs(float a)

Parameters

a

A float value.

Returns

The absolute value of its argument.

Description

This method returns the absolute value of its argument.

If the argument to this method is negative or positive zero, the method should return positive zero. If the argument is positive or negative infinity, the method returns positive infinity. If the argument is NaN, the method returns NaN.

public static int abs(int a)

Parameters

a

An int value.

Returns

The absolute value of its argument.

Description

This method returns the absolute value of its argument.

If the argument is Integer.MIN_VALUE, the method actually returns Integer.MIN_VALUE because the true absolute value of Integer.MIN_VALUE is one greater than the largest positive value that can be represented by an int.

public static long abs(long a)

Parameters

a

A long value.

Returns

The absolute value of its argument.

Description

This method returns the absolute value of its argument.

If the argument is Long.MIN_VALUE, the method actually returns Long.MIN_VALUE because the true absolute value of Long.MIN_VALUE is one greater than the largest positive value represented by a long.

acos

public static native double acos(double a)

Parameters

a

A double value greater than or equal to -1.0 and less than or equal to 1.0.

Returns

The arc cosine measured in radians; the result is greater than or equal to 0.0 and less than or equal to pi.

Description

This method returns the arc cosine of the given value.

If the value is NaN or its absolute value is greater than 1.0, the method returns NaN.

asin

public static native double asin(double a)

Parameters

a

A double value greater than or equal to -1.0 and less than or equal to 1.0.

Returns

The arc sine measured in radians; the result is greater than or equal to -pi/2 and less than or equal to pi/2.

Description

This method returns the arc sine of the given value.

If the value is NaN or its absolute value is greater than 1.0, the method returns NaN. If the value is positive zero, the method returns positive zero. If the value is negative zero, the method returns negative zero.

atan

public static native double atan(double a)

Parameters

a

A double value greater than or equal to -1.0 and less than or equal to 1.0.

Returns

The arc tangent measured in radians; the result is greater than or equal to -pi/2 and less than or equal to pi/2.

Description

This method returns the principle value of the arc tangent of the given value.

If the value is NaN, the method returns NaN. If the value is positive zero, the method returns positive zero. If the value is negative zero, the method returns negative zero.

atan2

public static native double atan2(double a, double b)

Parameters

a

A double value.

b

A double value.

Returns

The theta component of the polar coordinate (r,theta) that corresponds to the cartesian coordinate (a,b); the result is measured in radians and is greater than or equal to -pi and less than or equal to pi.

Description

This method returns the theta component of the polar coordinate (r,theta) that corresponds to the cartesian coordinate (a,b). It computes theta as the principle value of the arc tangent of b/a, using the signs of both arguments to determine the quadrant (and sign) of the return value.

If either argument is NaN, the method returns NaN.

If the first argument is positive zero and the second argument is positive, then the method returns positive zero. If the first argument is positive zero and the second argument is negative, then the method returns the double value closest to pi.

If the first argument is negative zero and the second argument is positive, the method returns negative zero. If the first argument is negative zero and the second argument is negative, the method returns the double value closest to -pi.

If the first argument is positive and finite and the second argument is positive infinity, the method returns positive zero. If the first argument is positive and finite and the second argument is negative infinity, the method returns the double value closest to pi.

If the first argument is negative and finite and the second argument is positive infinity, the method returns negative zero. If the first argument is negative and finite and the second argument is negative infinity, the method returns the double value closest to -pi.

If the first argument is positive and the second argument is positive zero or negative zero, the method returns the double value closest to pi/2. If the first argument is negative and the second argument is positive or negative zero, the method returns the double value closest to -pi/2.

If the first argument is positive infinity and the second argument is finite, the method returns the double value closest to pi/2. If the first argument is negative infinity and the second argument is finite, the method returns the double value closest to -pi/2.

If both arguments are positive infinity, the method returns the double value closest to pi/4. If the first argument is positive infinity and the second argument is negative infinity, the method returns the double value closest to 3pi/4. If the first argument is negative infinity and the second argument is positive infinity, the method returns the double value closest to -pi/4. If both arguments are negative infinity, the method returns the double value closest to -3pi/4.

ceil

public static native double ceil(double a)

Parameters

a

A double value.

Returns

The smallest integer greater than or equal to the given value.

Description

This method performs the ceiling operation. It returns the smallest integer that is greater than or equal to its argument.

If the argument is NaN, an infinity value, or a zero value, the method returns that same value. If the argument is less than zero but greater than -1.0, the method returns negative zero.

cos

public static native double cos(double a)

Parameters

a

A double value that's an angle measured in radians.

Returns

The cosine of the given angle.

Description

This method returns the cosine of the given angle measured in radians.

If the angle is NaN or an infinity value, the method returns NaN.

exp

public static native double exp(double a)

Parameters

a

A double value.

Returns

e^a

Description

This method returns the exponential function of a. In other words, e is raised to the value specified by the parameter a, where e is the base of the natural logarithms.

If the value is NaN, the method returns NaN. If the value is positive infinity, the method returns positive infinity. If the value is negative infinity, the method returns positive zero.

floor

public static native double floor(double a)

Parameters

a

A double value.

Returns

The greatest integer less than or equal to the given value.

Description

This method performs the floor operation. It returns the largest integer that is less than or equal to its argument.

If the argument is NaN, an infinity value, or a zero value, the method returns that same value.

IEEEremainder

public static native double IEEEremainder(double a, double b)

Parameters

a

A double value.

b

A double value.

Returns

The remainder of a divided by b as defined by the IEEE 754 standard.

Description

This method returns the remainder of a divided by b as defined by the IEEE 754 standard. This operation involves first determining the mathematical quotient of a/b rounded to the nearest integer. If the quotient is equally close to two integers, it is rounded to the even integer. The method then returns a-(b x Q), where Q is the rounded quotient.

If either argument is NaN, the method returns NaN. If the first argument is positive or negative infinity and the second argument is positive or negative zero, the method also returns NaN. If the first argument is a finite value and the second argument is positive or negative infinity, the method returns its first argument.

log

public static native double log(double a)

Parameters

a

A double value that is greater than 0.0.

Returns

The natural logarithm of a.

Description

This method returns the natural logarithm (base e) of its argument.

In particular, if the argument is positive infinity, the method returns positive infinity. If the argument is positive or negative zero, the method returns negative infinity. If the argument is less than zero, the method returns NaN. If the argument is NaN, the method returns NaN.

max

public static double max(double a, double b)

Parameters

a

A double value.

b

A double value.

Returns

The greater of a and b.

Description

This method returns the greater of its two arguments. In other words, it returns the one that is closer to positive infinity.

If one argument is positive zero and the other is negative zero, the method returns positive zero. If either argument is NaN, the method returns NaN.

public static float max(float a, float b)

Parameters

a

A float value.

b

A float value.

Returns

The greater of a and b.

Description

This method returns the greater of its two arguments. In other words, it returns the one that is closer to positive infinity.

If one argument is positive zero and the other is negative zero, the method returns positive zero. If either argument is NaN, the method returns NaN.

public static int max(int a, int b)

Parameters

a

An int value.

b

An int value.

Returns

The greater of a and b.

Description

This method returns the greater of its two arguments. In other words, it returns the one that is closer to Integer.MAX_VALUE.

public static long max(long a, long b)

Parameters

a

A long value.

b

A long value.

Returns

The greater of a and b.

Description

This method returns the greater of its two arguments. In other words, it returns the one that is closer to Long.MAX_VALUE.

min

public static double min(double a, double b)

Parameters

a

A double value.

b

A double value.

Returns

The lesser of a and b.

Description

This method returns the lesser of its two arguments. In other words, it returns the one that is closer to negative infinity.

If one argument is positive zero and the other is negative zero, the method returns negative zero. If either argument is NaN, the method returns NaN.

public static float min(float a, float b)

Parameters

a

A float value.

b

A float value.

Returns

The lesser of a and b.

Description

This method returns the lesser of its two arguments. In other words, it returns the one that is closer to negative infinity.

If one argument is positive zero and the other is negative zero, the method returns negative zero. If either argument is NaN, the method returns NaN.

public static int min(int a, int b)

Parameters

a

An int value.

b

An int value.

Returns

The lesser of a and b.

Description

This method returns the lesser of its two arguments. In other words, it returns the one that is closer to Integer.MIN_VALUE.

public static long min(long a, long b)

Parameters

a

A long value.

b

A long value.

Returns

The lesser of a and b.

Description

This method returns the lesser of its two arguments. In other words, it returns the one that is closer to Long.MIN_VALUE.

pow

public static native double pow(double a, double b)

Parameters

a

A double value.

b

A double value.

Returns

a^b

Description

This method computes the value of raising a to the power of b.

If the second argument is positive or negative zero, the method returns 1.0. If the second argument is 1.0, the method returns its first argument. If the second argument is NaN, the method returns NaN. If the first argument is NaN and the second argument is nonzero, the method returns NaN.

If the first argument is positive zero and the second argument is greater than zero, the method returns positive zero. If the first argument is positive zero and the second argument is less than zero, the method returns positive infinity.

If the first argument is positive infinity and the second argument is less than zero, the method returns positive zero. If the first argument is positive infinity and the second argument is greater than zero, the method returns positive infinity.

If the absolute value of the first argument is greater than 1 and the second argument is positive infinity, the method returns positive infinity. If the absolute value of the first argument is greater than 1 and the second argument is negative infinity, the method returns positive zero. If the absolute value of the first argument is less than 1 and the second argument is negative infinity, the method returns positive infinity. If the absolute value of the first argument is less than 1 and the second argument is positive infinity, the method returns positive zero. If the absolute value of the first argument is 1 and the second argument is positive or negative infinity, the method returns NaN.

If the first argument is negative zero and the second argument is greater than zero but not a finite odd integer, the method returns positive zero. If the first argument is negative zero and the second argument is a positive finite odd integer, the method returns negative zero. If the first argument is negative zero and the second argument is less than zero but not a finite odd integer, the method returns positive infinity. If the first argument is negative zero and the second argument is a negative finite odd integer, the method returns negative infinity.

If the first argument is negative infinity and the second argument is less than zero but not a finite odd integer, the method returns positive zero. If the first argument is negative infinity and the second argument is a negative finite odd integer, the method returns negative zero. If the first argument is negative infinity and the second argument is greater than zero but not a finite odd integer, the method returns positive infinity. If the first argument is negative infinity and the second argument is a positive finite odd integer, the method returns negative infinity.

If the first argument is less than zero and the second argument is a finite even integer, the method returns the result of the absolute value of the first argument raised to the power of the second argument. If the first argument is less than zero and the second argument is a finite odd integer, the method returns the negative of the result of the absolute value of the first argument raised to the power of the second argument. If the first argument is finite and less than zero and the second argument is finite and not an integer, the method returns NaN.

If both arguments are integer values, the method returns the first argument raised to the power of the second argument.

random

public static synchronized double random()

Returns

A random number between 0.0 and 1.0.

Description

This method returns a random number greater than or equal to 0.0 and less than 1.0. The implementation of this method uses the java.util.Random class. You may prefer to use the Random class directly, in order to gain more control over the distribution, type, and repeatability of the random numbers you are generating.

rint

public static native double rint(double a)

Parameters

a

A double value.

Returns

The value of its argument rounded to the nearest integer.

Description

This method returns its argument rounded to the nearest integer; the result is returned as a double value. If the argument is equidistant from two integers (e.g., 1.5), the method returns the even integer.

If the argument is an infinity value, a zero value, or NaN, the method returns that same value.

round

public static long round(double a)

Parameters

a

A double value.

Returns

The value of its argument rounded to the nearest long.

Description

This method returns its double argument rounded to the nearest integral value and converted to a long. If the argument is equidistant from two integers, the method returns the greater of the two integers.

If the argument is positive infinity or any other value greater than Long.MAX_VALUE, the method returns Long.MAX_VALUE. If the argument is negative infinity or any other value less than Long.MIN_VALUE, the method returns Long.MIN_VALUE. If the argument is NaN, the method returns 0.

public static int round(float a)

Parameters

a

A float value.

Returns

The value of its argument rounded to the nearest int.

Description

This method returns its float argument rounded to the nearest integral value and converted to an int. If the argument is equidistant from two integers, the method returns the greater of the two integers.

If the argument is positive infinity or any other value greater than the Integer.MAX_VALUE, the method returns Integer.MAX_VALUE. If the argument is negative infinity or any other value less than Integer.MIN_VALUE, the method returns Integer.MIN_VALUE. If the argument is NaN, the method returns 0.

sin

public static native double sin(double a)

Parameters

a

A double value that's an angle measured in radians.

Returns

The sine of the given angle.

Description

This method returns the sine of the given angle measured in radians.

If the angle is NaN or an infinity value, the method returns NaN. If the angle is positive zero, the method returns positive zero. If the angle is negative zero, the method returns negative zero.

sqrt

public static native double sqrt(double a)

Parameters

a

A double value.

Returns

The square root of its argument.

Description

This method returns the square root of its argument.

If the argument is negative or NaN, the method returns NaN. If the argument is positive infinity, the method returns positive infinity. If the argument is positive or negative zero, the method returns that same value.

tan

public static native double tan(double a)

Parameters

a

A double value that is an angle measured in radians.

Returns

The tangent of the given angle.

Description

This method returns the tangent of the given angle measured in radians.

If the angle is NaN or an infinity value, the method returns NaN. If the angle is positive zero, the method returns positive zero. If the angle is negative zero, the method returns negative zero.

Inherited Methods

Method

Inherited From

Method

Inherited From

clone()

Object

equals(Object)

Object

finalize()

Object

getClass()

Object

hashCode()

Object

notify()

Object

notifyAll()

Object

toString()

Object

wait()

Object

wait(long)

Object

wait(long, int)

Object

See Also

Double, Float, Integer, Long, Object


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