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  14   Templates                                                  [temp]

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1 A template defines a family of types or functions.
          template-declaration:
                  exportopt template < template-parameter-list > declaration
          template-parameter-list:
                  template-parameter
                  template-parameter-list , template-parameter
  The declaration in a template-declaration shall declare  or  define  a
  function  or a class, define a static data member of a class template,
  define a member function or a member class of  a  class  template,  or
  define a member template of a class.  A template-declaration is a dec-
  laration.  A template-declaration is also a definition if its declara-
  tion defines a function, a class, or a static data member.

2 A  template-declaration  can appear only as a namespace scope or class
  scope declaration.  In a function template declaration,  the  declara-
  tor-id  shall be a template-name (i.e., not a template-id).  [Note: in
  a class template declaration, if the declarator-id is  a  template-id,
  the  declaration  declares  a  class  template  partial specialization
  (_temp.class.spec_).  ]

3 In  a  template-declaration,  explicit  specialization,  or   explicit
  instantiation  the  init-declarator-list in the declaration shall con-
  tain at most one declarator.  When  such  a  declaration  is  used  to
  declare a class, no declarator is permitted.

4 A  template  name may have linkage (_basic.link_).  A template, a tem-
  plate explicit specialization (_temp.expl.spec_), or a class  template
  partial  specialization  shall  not have C linkage.  If the linkage of
  one of these is something other than C or C++, the behavior is  imple-
  mentation-defined.  Template definitions shall obey the one definition
  rule (_basic.def.odr_).

5 The name of a class template shall not be declared  to  refer  to  any
  other  template,  class,  function,  object,  enumeration, enumerator,
  namespace, or type in the same scope (_basic.scope_).  Except  that  a
  function template can be overloaded either by (non-template) functions
  with the same name or by other function templates with the  same  name
  (_temp.over_),  a  template  name declared in namespace scope shall be
  unique in that namespace.

6 A non-inline template function or a static  data  member  template  is
  called  an exported template if its definition is preceded by the key-
  word export or if it has been previously declared  using  the  keyword

  export  in  the  same  translation  unit.   Declaring a class template
  exported is equivalent to declaring all  of  its  non-inline  function
  members,  static  data  members, member classes, and non-inline member
  templates which are defined in that translation unit exported.

7 Templates defined in an unnamed namespace shall not  be  exported.   A
  template  shall be exported only once in a program.  An implementation
  is not required to diagnose a violation of this rule.  A  non-exported
  template that is neither explicitly specialized nor explicitly instan-
  tiated must be defined in  every  translation  unit  in  which  it  is
  implicitly   instantiated  (_temp.inst_)  or  explicitly  instantiated
  (_temp.explicit_); no diagnostic is required.   An  exported  template
  need  only  be declared (and not necessarily defined) in a translation
  unit in which it is instantiated.  A template function  declared  both
  exported and inline is just inline and not exported.

8 [Note:  an implementation may require that a translation unit contain-
  ing the definition of an exported  template  be  compiled  before  any
  translation unit containing an instantiation of that template.  ]

  14.1  Template parameters                                 [temp.param]

1 The syntax for template-parameters is:
          template-parameter:
                  type-parameter
                  parameter-declaration
          type-parameter:
                  class identifieropt
                  class identifieropt = type-id
                  typename identifieropt
                  typename identifieropt = type-id
                  template < template-parameter-list > class  identifieropt
                  template < template-parameter-list > class  identifieropt = template-name
  There  is  no semantic difference between class and typename in a tem-
  plate-parameter.  typename followed by an unqualified-id names a  tem-
  plate  type  parameter.  typename followed by a qualified-name denotes
  the type in a non-type parameter-declaration.  A storage  class  shall
  not  be  specified in a template-parameter declaration.  [Note: a tem-
  plate parameter may be a class template.  For example,
          template<class T> class myarray { /* ... */ };

          template<class K, class V, template<class T> class C = myarray>
          class Map {
                  C<K> key;
                  C<V> value;
                  // ...
          };
   --end note]

2 A type-parameter defines its identifier to be a type-name (if declared
  with  class  or typename) or template-name (if declared with template)
  in the scope of the template declaration.  [Note: because of the  name
  look  up  rules,  a  template-parameter  that  could be interpreted as
  either a non-type template-parameter or a type-parameter (because  its

  identifier  is  the  name  of an already existing class) is taken as a
  type-parameter.  For example,
          class T { /* ... */ };
          int i;

          template<class T, T i> void f(T t)
          {
                  T t1 = i;      // template-parameters T and i
                  ::T t2 = ::i;  // global namespace members T and i
          }
  Here, the template f has a type-parameter called  T,  rather  than  an
  unnamed non-type template-parameter of class T.  ]

3 A non-type template-parameter shall have one of the following (option-
  ally cv-qualified) types:

  --integral type, accepting an integral constant expression as an argu-
    ment,

  --enumeration  type,  accepting  an integral constant expression as an
    argument,

  --pointer to object, accepting an address constant  expression  desig-
    nating a named object with external linkage,

  --reference  to  object,  accepting an lvalue expression designating a
    named object with external linkage,

  --pointer to function, accepting an  expression  of  type  pointer  to
    function designating a function with external linkage,

  --reference  to function, accepting an lvalue expression designating a
    function with external linkage,

  --pointer to member, accepting an address constant  expression  desig-
    nating a named member of a class.

4 [Note:  other  types are disallowed either explicitly below or implic-
  itly  by  the  rules  governing   the   form   of   template-arguments
  (_temp.arg_).  ] The top-level cv-qualifiers on the template-parameter
  are ignored when determining its type.

5 A non-type non-reference template-parameter  is  not  an  lvalue.   It
  shall  not  be assigned to or in any other way have its value changed.
  A non-type non-reference template-parameter cannot  have  its  address
  taken.  When a non-type non-reference template-parameter is used as an
  initializer for a reference, a temporary is always used.  [Example:

          template<const X& x, int i> void f()
          {
                  i++; // error: change of template-parameter value

                  &x; // ok
                  &i; // error: address of non-reference template-parameter

                  int& ri = i; // error: non-const reference bound to temporary
                  const int& cri = i; // ok: const reference bound to temporary
          }
   --end example]

6 A non-type template-parameter shall not be of type void.   A  non-type
  template-parameter shall not be of floating type.  [Example:
          template<double d> class X;    // error
          template<double* pd> class Y;  // ok
          template<double& rd> class Z;  // ok
   --end example]

7 The  notion  of  "array type decay" does not apply to template-parame-
  ters.  [Example:
          template<int a[5]> struct S { /* ... */ };
          int v[5];
          int* p = v;
          S<v> x; // fine
          S<p> y; // error
   --end example]

8 A default template-argument is a type, value,  or  template  specified
  after  =  in a template-parameter.  A default template-argument may be
  specified for both a type and non-type template-parameter.  A  default
  template-argument  may be specified in a class template declaration or
  a class template definition.  A default template-argument shall not be
  specified  in  a  function template declaration or a function template
  definition.  The set of default template-arguments available  for  use
  with  a  template in a translation unit shall be provided by the first
  declaration of the template in that translation unit.

9 If a template-parameter has a default  template-argument,  all  subse-
  quent  template-parameters shall have a default template-argument sup-
  plied.  [Example:
          template<class T1 = int, class T2> class B; // error
   --end example]

  14.2  Names of template specializations                   [temp.names]

1 A template specialization (_temp.spec_) can be referred to by  a  tem-
  plate-id:
          template-id:
                  template-name < template-argument-list >
          template-name:
                  identifier

          template-argument-list:
                  template-argument
                  template-argument-list , template-argument
          template-argument:
                  assignment-expression
                  type-id
                  template-name
  [Note:  the  name look up rules (_basic.lookup_) are used to associate
  the use of a name with a template declaration; that is, to identify  a
  name as a template-name.  ]

2 For  a  template-name to be explicitly qualified by the template argu-
  ments, the name must be known to refer to a template.

3 After name look up (_basic.lookup_) finds that a name is  a  template-
  name,  if  this  name is followed by a <, the < is always taken as the
  beginning of a template-argument-list and never as a name followed  by
  the  less-than  operator.   When parsing a template-id, the first non-
  nested >1) is taken as the end of  the  template-argument-list  rather
  than a greater-than operator.  [Example:
          template<int i> class X { /* ... */ };

          X< 1>2 >        x1; // syntax error
          X<(1>2)>        x2; // ok

          template<class T> class Y { /* ... */ };
          Y< X<1> >       x3; // ok
          Y<X<6>> 1> >    x4; // ok: Y< X< (6>>1) > >
   --end example]

4 When  the name of a member template specialization appears after .  or
  -> in a postfix-expression, or after :: in a qualified-id that explic-
  itly  depends on a template-argument (_temp.dep_), the member template
  name must be prefixed by the keyword template.  Otherwise the name  is
  assumed to name a non-template.  [Example:
          class X {
          public:
                  template<size_t> X* alloc();
          };
          void f(X* p)
          {
                  X* p1 = p->alloc<200>();
                          // ill-formed: < means less than

                  X* p2 = p->template alloc<200>();
                          // fine: < starts explicit qualification
          }
   --end example]

  _________________________
  1) A > that encloses the type-id of a dynamic_cast, static_cast, rein-
  terpret_cast  or  const-cast  is  considered nested for the purpose of
  this description.

5 If a name prefixed by the keyword template in this way is not the name
  of a member function template, the program is ill-formed.

6 A template-id that names a class template specialization is  a  class-
  name (_class_).

  14.3  Template arguments                                    [temp.arg]

1 The  types  of the template-arguments specified in a template-id shall
  match the types specified for the template in its  template-parameter-
  list.  [Example:
          template<class T> class Array {
                  T* v;
                  int sz;
          public:
                  explicit Array(int);
                  T& operator[](int);
                  T& elem(int i) { return v[i]; }
                  // ...
          };
          Array<int> v1(20);
          typedef complex<double> dcomplex; // complex is a standard
                                            // library template
          Array<dcomplex> v2(30);
          Array<dcomplex> v3(40);

          v1[3] = 7;
          v2[3] = v3.elem(4) = dcomplex(7,8);
    --end  example]  If  the use of a template-argument gives rise to an
  ill-formed construct in the implicit instantiation of a template  spe-
  cialization, the instantiation is ill-formed.

2 In  a template-argument, an ambiguity between a type-id and an expres-
  sion is resolved to a type-id.  [Example:
          template<class T> void f();
          template<int I> void f();

          void g()
          {
                  f<int()>(); // ``int()'' is a type-id: call the first f()
          }
   --end example]

3 A template-argument for a  non-type  non-reference  template-parameter
  shall be an integral constant-expression of integral type, the name of
  a non-type non-reference template parameter, the address of an  object
  or  a  function  with external linkage, or a non-overloaded pointer to
  member.  The address of an object or function shall  be  expressed  as
  &f,  plain  f (for function only), or &X::f where f is the function or
  object name.  In the case of &X::f, X shall be a (possibly  qualified)
  name  of a class and f the name of a static member of X.  A pointer to
  member shall be expressed as &X::m where X is a  (possibly  qualified)
  name  of  a  class  and m is the name of a non-static member of X.  In
  particular, a string  literal  (_lex.string_)  is  not  an  acceptable

  template-argument  because a string literal is an object with internal
  linkage.  [Example:
          template<class T, char* p> class X {
                  // ...
                  X(const char* q) { /* ... */ }
          };

          X<int,"Studebaker"> x1; // error: string literal as template-argument

          char p[] = "Vivisectionist";
          X<int,p> x2; // ok
   --end example]

4 Addresses of array elements and of non-static class members shall  not
  be used as template-arguments.  [Example:
          template<int* p> class X { };

          int a[10];
          struct S { int m; static int s; } s;

          X<&a[2]> x3; // error: address of array element
          X<&s.m> x4;  // error: address of non-static member
          X<&s.s> x5;  // error: &S::s must be used
          X<&S::s> x6; // ok: address of static member
   --end example]

5 A  non-type  template-parameter that is a reference shall not be bound
  to a temporary, an unnamed lvalue, or a named  lvalue  that  does  not
  have external linkage.  [Example:
          template<const int& CRI> struct B { /* ... */ };

          B<1> b2; // error: temporary required for template argument

          int c = 1;
          B<c> b1; // ok
   --end example]

6 Standard  conversions  (_conv_) are applied to an expression used as a
  template-argument for a non-type template-parameter to bring it to the
  type of its corresponding template-parameter.  [Example:
          template<const int* pci> struct X { /* ... */ };
          int ai[10];
          X<ai> xi;  // array to pointer and qualification conversions

          struct Base { /* ... */ };
          struct Derived : Base { /* ... */ };
          template<Base& b> struct Y { /* ... */ };
          Derived d;
          Y<d> yd;   // derived to base conversion
   --end example]

7 An  argument  to  a non-type template-parameter of pointer to function
  type shall have exactly the type specified by the  template-parameter.
  [Note:  this  allows  selection from a set of overloaded functions.  ]

  [Example:
          void f(char);
          void f(int);

          template<void (*pf)(int)> struct A { /* ... */ };

          A<&f> a; // selects f(int)
   --end example]

8 If a declaration acquires a function type through a  template-argument
  of  function  type and this causes a declaration that does not use the
  syntactic form of a function declarator to  have  function  type,  the
  program is ill-formed.  [Example:
          template<class T> struct A {
                  static T t;
          };
          typedef int function();
          A<function> a;  // ill-formed: would declare A<function>::t
                          // as a static member function
   --end example]

9 A  local  type, a type with no linkage or an unnamed type shall not be
  used as a template-argument for a template type-parameter.  [Example:
          void f()
          {
                  struct S { /* ... */ };

                  X<S> x3; // error: local type used as template-argument
          }
   --end example]

10For a template-argument of class type, the template definition has  no
  special  access  rights  to  the  inaccessible members of the template
  argument type.  The name of a template-argument shall be accessible at
  the point where it is used as a template-argument.  [Example:
          template<class T> class X { /* ... */ };

          class Y {
          private:
                  struct S { /* ... */ };
                  X<S> x;  // ok: S is accessible
          };

          X<Y::S> y; // error: S not accessible
   --end example]

11When default template-arguments are used, a template-argument list can
  be empty.  In that case the empty <> brackets shall still be  used  as
  the template-argument-list.  [Example:
          template<class T = char> class String;
          String<>* p; // ok: String<char>
          String* q;   // syntax error
   --end example]

12An  explicit  destructor  call (_class.dtor_) for an object that has a
  type that is a class template specialization  may  explicitly  specify
  the template-arguments.  [Example:
          template<class T> struct A {
                  ~A();
          };
          void main() {
                  A<int>* p;
                  p->A<int>::~A(); // ok: destructor call
                  p->A<int>::~A<int>(); // ok: destructor call
          }
   --end example]

  14.4  Type equivalence                                     [temp.type]

1 Two template-ids refer to the same class or function if their template
  names are identical, they refer to the same template, their type  tem-
  plate-arguments  are  the same type and, their non-type template-argu-
  ments have identical values.  [Example:
          template<class E, int size> class buffer { /* ... */ };
          buffer<char,2*512> x;
          buffer<char,1024> y;
  declares x and y to be of the same type, and
          template<class T, void(*err_fct)()> class list { /* ... */ };
          list<int,&error_handler1> x1;
          list<int,&error_handler2> x2;
          list<int,&error_handler2> x3;
          list<char,&error_handler2> x4;
  declares x2 and x3 to be of the same type.  Their  type  differs  from
  the types of x1 and x4.  ]

  14.5  Template declarations                               [temp.decls]

1 A template-id, that is, the template-name followed by a template-argu-
  ment-list shall not be specified in the declaration of a primary  tem-
  plate declaration.  [Example:
          template<class T1, class T2, int I> class A<T1, T2, I> { }; // error
          template<class T1, int I> void sort<T1, I>(T1 data[I]);     // error
    --end  example] [Note: however, this syntax is allowed in class tem-
  plate partial specializations (_temp.class.spec_).  ]

  14.5.1  Class templates                                   [temp.class]

1 A class template defines the layout and operations  for  an  unbounded
  set  of  related  types.  [Example: a single class template List might
  provide a common definition for list of int, list of float,  and  list
  of pointers to Shapes.  ]

2 [Example: An array class template might be declared like this:

          template<class T> class Array {
              T* v;
              int sz;
          public:
              explicit Array(int);
              T& operator[](int);
              T& elem(int i) { return v[i]; }
              // ...
          };
  The  prefix  template  <class  T>  specifies  that a template is being
  declared and that a type-name T will be used in the  declaration.   In
  other words, Array is a parameterized type with T as its parameter.  ]

3 When a member function, a member class, a static data member or a mem-
  ber  template of a class template is defined outside of the class tem-
  plate definition, the names of template parameters used in the defini-
  tion  of the member may be different from the template parameter names
  used in the class template definition.   The  template  argument  list
  following  the class template name in the member definition shall name
  the parameters in the same order as the one used in  the  member  tem-
  plate parameter list.  [Example:
          template<class T1, class T2> struct A {
              void f1();
              void f2();
          };

          template<class T2, class T1> void A<T2,T1>::f1() { } //ok
          template<class T2, class T1> void A<T1,T2>::f2() { } //error
   --end example]

  14.5.1.1  Member functions of class templates          [temp.mem.func]

1 A  member function of a class template is implicitly a member function
  template with the template-parameters of its  class  template  as  its
  template-parameters.

2 A  member  function  template may be defined outside of the class tem-
  plate definition in which it is declared.  [Example:
          template<class T> class Array {
              T* v;
              int sz;
          public:
              explicit Array(int);
              T& operator[](int);
              T& elem(int i) { return v[i]; }
              // ...
          };
  declares three function templates.  The subscript  function  might  be
  defined like this:
          template<class T> T& Array<T>::operator[](int i)
          {
              if (i<0 || sz<=i) error("Array: range error");
              return v[i];
          }

   --end example]

3 The  template-arguments  for a class member function are determined by
  the template-arguments of the type of the object for which the  member
  function    is    called.    [Example:   the   template-argument   for
  Array<T>::operator[]() will be determined by the Array  to  which  the
  subscripting operation is applied.
          Array<int> v1(20);
          Array<dcomplex> v2(30);

          v1[3] = 7;              // Array<int>::operator[]()
          v2[3] = dcomplex(7,8);  // Array<dcomplex>::operator[]()
   --end example]

  14.5.1.2  Member classes of class templates           [temp.mem.class]

1 A member class of a class template is implicitly a class template with
  the template-parameters of its class template as its  template-parame-
  ters.

2 A member class template may be defined outside the class template def-
  inition in which it is declared.  [Note:  the  member  class  template
  must  be  defined before the first use of the member which requires an
  instantiation (_temp.inst_).  For example,
          template<class T> struct A {
                  class B;
          };
          A<int>::B* b1;  // ok: requires A to be defined but not A::B
          template<class T> class A<T>::B { };
          A<int>::B  b2;  // ok: requires A::B to be defined
   --end note]

  14.5.1.3  Static data members of class templates         [temp.static]

1 A static data member of a class template is implicitly a  static  data
  member  template with the template-parameters of its class template as
  its template-parameters.  A template definition for such a static data
  member  may  be provided in a namespace scope enclosing the definition
  of the static member's class template.  [Example:
          template<class T> class X {
                  static T s;
          };
          template<class T> T X<T>::s = 0;
   --end example]

  14.5.2  Member templates                                    [temp.mem]

1 A template can be declared within a class or class  template;  such  a
  template  is  called  a  member  template.   A  member template can be
  defined within or outside its class definition or class template defi-
  nition.  A member template of a class template that is defined outside
  of its class template definition shall be specified with the template-
  parameters  of  the class template followed by the template-parameters
  of the member template.  [Example:

          template<class T> class string {
          public:
                  template<class T2> int compare(const T2&);
                  template<class T2> string(const string<T2>& s) { /* ... */ }
                  // ...
          };

          template<class T> template<class T2> int string<T>::compare(const T2& s)
          {
                  // ...
          }
   --end example]

2 A local class shall not have member templates.  Access  control  rules
  (_class.access_)  apply  to member template names.  A destructor shall
  not be a member template.  A  normal  (non-template)  member  function
  with  a given name and type and a member function template of the same
  name, which could be used to generate a  specialization  of  the  same
  type,  can  both be declared in a class.  When both exist, a reference
  refers to the non-template unless an explicit template  argument  list
  is supplied.  [Example:
          template <class T> struct A {
                  void f(int);
                  template <class T2> void f(T2);
          };

          template <> void A<int>::f(int) { }  // non-template member
          template <> template <> void A<int>::f<>(int) { }  // template member
          int main()
          {
                  A<char> ac;
                  ac.f(1);    // non-template
                  ac.f('c');  // template
                  ac.f<>(1);  // template
          }
   --end example]

3 A  member function template shall not be virtual.  A specialization of
  a member function template does not override a virtual function from a
  base class.  [Example:
          class B {
                  virtual void f(int);
          };
          class D : public B {
                  template <class T> void f(T);  // does not override B::f(int)
                  void f(int i) { f<>(i); }  // overriding function that calls
                                             // the template instantiation
          };
   --end example]

4 A  specialization  of  a template conversion operator is referenced in
  the same way as a non-template conversion operator  that  converts  to
  the same type.  [Example:

          struct A {
                  template <class T> operator T*();
          };
          template <class T> A::operator T*(){ return 0; }
          template <> A::operator char*(){ return 0; }  // specialization
          template A::operator void*();                 // explicit instantiation
          int main()
          {
                  A      a;
                  int*   ip;

                  ip = a.operator int*();  // explicit call to template operator
                                           // A::operator int*()
          }
  ]

5 If  more  than  one conversion template can produce the required type,
  the partial ordering rules (_temp.func.order_) are used to select  the
  "most  specialized"  version  of  the  template  that  can produce the
  required type.  As with other conversion functions, the  type  of  the
  implicit  this  parameter  is  not considered.  [Note: members of base
  classes are considered equally with  members  of  the  derived  class,
  except  that  a  derived  class conversion function hides a base class
  conversion function that converts to the same type.   --end note]

  14.5.3  Friends                                          [temp.friend]

1 A friend function of a class template can be a function template or an
  ordinary (non-template) function.  [Example:
          template<class T> class task {
              // ...
              friend void next_time();
              friend task<T>* preempt(task<T>*);
              friend task* prmt(task*);           // task is task<T>
              friend class task<int>;
              // ...
          };
  Here,  next_time()  and  task<int> become friends of all task classes,
  and each task has appropriately typed functions preempt()  and  prmt()
  as  friends.   The preempt functions might be defined as a template as
  follows
          template<class T> task<T>* preempt(task<T>* t) { /* ... */ }
   --end example]

2 A friend template may be declared  within  a  non-template  class.   A
  friend  function  template may be defined within a non-template class.
  In these cases, all specializations of the class or function  template
  are friends of the class granting friendship.  [Example:
          class A {
                  template<class T> friend class B; // ok
                  template<class T> friend void f(T){ /* ... */ } // ok
          };
   --end example]

3 When a function is defined in a friend function declaration in a class
  template, the function is defined when the  class  template  is  first
  instantiated.   The  function  is  defined  even  if it is never used.
  [Note: if the function definition is ill-formed for a  given  special-
  ization  of  the  enclosing  class template, the program is ill-formed
  even if the function is never used.   --end note]

4 A member of a class template may be declared to be a friend of a  non-
  template  class.   In  this case, the corresponding member function of
  every specialization of the class template is a friend  of  the  class
  granting friendship.  [Example:
          template<class T> struct A {
                  struct B { };
                  void f();
          };

          class C {
                  template<class T> friend struct A<T>::B;
                  template<class T> friend void A<T>::f();
          };
   --end example]

5 [Note: a friend declaration may first declare a member of an enclosing
  namespace scope (_temp.inject_).  ]

6 A friend template shall not be declared in a local class.

  14.5.4  Class template partial specializations       [temp.class.spec]

1 A primary class template declaration is one in which  the  class  tem-
  plate  name  is  an  identifier.   A template declaration in which the
  class template name is a template-id, is a partial  specialization  of
  the class template named in the template-id.  A partial specialization
  of a class template provides an alternative definition of the template
  that is used instead of the primary definition when the arguments in a
  specialization  match  those  given  in  the  partial   specialization
  (_temp.class.spec.match_).   The  primary  template  shall be declared
  before any specializations of that template.  If a  template  is  par-
  tially  specialized then that partial specialization shall be declared
  before the first use of that partial specialization that  would  cause
  an  implicit instantiation to take place, in every translation unit in
  which such a use occurs.  Each class template  partial  specialization
  is  a distinct template and definitions shall be provided for the mem-
  bers of a template partial specialization (_temp.class.spec.mfunc_).

2 [Example:
          template<class T1, class T2, int I> class A             { }; // #1
          template<class T, int I>            class A<T, T*, I>   { }; // #2
          template<class T1, class T2, int I> class A<T1*, T2, I> { }; // #3
          template<class T>                   class A<int, T*, 5> { }; // #4
          template<class T1, class T2, int I> class A<T1, T2*, I> { }; // #5
  The first declaration declares the primary (unspecialized) class  tem-
  plate.   The  second  and subsequent declarations declare partial spe-
  cializations of the primary template.  ]

3 The  template  parameters  are specified in the angle bracket enclosed
  list that immediately follows the keyword template.  For partial  spe-
  cializations, the template argument list is explicitly written immedi-
  ately following the class template name.  For primary templates,  this
  list is implicitly described by the template parameter list.  Specifi-
  cally, the order of the template arguments is the  sequence  in  which
  they  appear  in  the template parameter list.  [Example: the template
  argument list for the primary template in the example  above  is  <T1,
  T2, I>.  ] [Note: the template argument list shall not be specified in
  the primary template declaration. For example,
          template<class T1, class T2, int I> class A<T1, T2, I>  { }; // error
   --end note]

4 A non-type argument is non-specialized if it is the name of a non-type
  parameter.  All other non-type arguments are specialized.

5 Within  the  argument list of a class template partial specialization,
  the following restrictions apply:

  --A partially  specialized  non-type  argument  expression  shall  not
    involve a template parameter of the specialization.  [Example:
              template <int I, int J> struct B {};
              template <int I> struct B<I, I*2> {};  // error
     --end example]

  --The type of a specialized argument shall not be dependent on another
    parameter of the specialization.  [Example:
              template <class T, T t> struct C {};
              template <class T> struct C<T, 1>;  // error
     --end example]

  --The argument list of the specialization shall not  be  identical  to
    the implicit argument list of the primary template.

6 The  template  parameter  list  of  a specialization shall not contain
  default template argument values.2)

  14.5.4.1  Matching of class template           [temp.class.spec.match]
       partial specializations

1 When a class template is used in a context that requires an instantia-
  tion of the class, it is necessary to determine whether the instantia-
  tion  is to be generated using the primary template or one of the par-
  tial specializations.  This is done by matching the template arguments
  of  the class template specialization with the template argument lists
  of the partial specializations.

  --If exactly one matching specialization is found,  the  instantiation
    is generated from that specialization.

  --If more than one matching specialization is found, the partial order
  _________________________
  2) There is no way in which they could be used.

    rules (_temp.class.order_) are used to determine whether one of  the
    specializations is more specialized than the others.  If none of the
    specializations is more specialized than all of the  other  matching
    specializations, then the use of the class template is ambiguous and
    the program is ill-formed.

  --If no matches are found, the instantiation  is  generated  from  the
    primary template.

2 A partial specialization matches a given actual template argument list
  if the template arguments of the partial specialization can be deduced
  from the actual template argument list (_temp.deduct_).  [Example:
          A<int, int, 1>   a1;  // uses #1
          A<int, int*, 1>  a2;  // uses #2, T is int, I is 1
          A<int, char*, 5> a3;  // uses #4, T is char
          A<int, char*, 1> a4;  // uses #5, T1 is int, T2 is char, I is 1
          A<int*, int*, 2> a5;  // ambiguous: matches #3 and #5
   --end example]

3 A  non-type template argument can also be deduced from the value of an
  actual template argument of a non-type parameter of the  primary  tem-
  plate.  [Example: the declaration of a2 above.  ]

4 In  a type name that refers to a class template specialization, (e.g.,
  A<int, int, 1>) the argument list must match  the  template  parameter
  list of the primary template.  The template arguments of a specializa-
  tion are deduced from the arguments of the primary template.

  14.5.4.2  Partial ordering of class template        [temp.class.order]
       specializations

1 For  two class template partial specializations, the first is at least
  as specialized as the second if:

  --the type arguments of the first  template's  argument  list  are  at
    least as specialized as those of the second template's argument list
    using the ordering rules for function templates (_temp.func.order_),
    and

  --each  non-type  argument of the first template's argument list is at
    least as specialized as that of the second template's argument list.

2 A  non-type  argument  is  at least as specialized as another non-type
  argument if:

  --both are formal arguments, or

  --the first is a value and the second is a formal argument, or

  --both are the same value.

3 A class template  partial  specialization  is  more  specialized  than
  another  if,  and  only if, it is at least as specialized as the other
  class template partial specialization and that class template  partial

  specialization is not at least as specialized as the first.  Otherwise
  the two class template partial specializations are unordered.   [Note:
  these  rules  do  not  cover all sets of partial specializations. Some
  sets are therefore considered unordered even when an ``obvious'' order
  might seem to exist. For example:
          template<int I, int J, class T> class X {};            // #1
          template<int I, int J>          class X<I, J, int> {}; // #2
          template<int I>                 class X<I, I, int> {}; // #3
  This  set is unordered even though #3 might look more specialized than
  #2.   --end note]

  14.5.4.3  Members of class template            [temp.class.spec.mfunc]
       specializations

1 The  template  parameter  list of a member of a class template partial
  specialization shall match the template parameter list  of  the  class
  template partial specialization.  The template argument list of a mem-
  ber of a class template partial specialization shall  match  the  tem-
  plate  argument  list of the class template partial specialization.  A
  class template specialization is a distinct template.  The members  of
  the class template partial specialization are unrelated to the members
  of the primary template.  Class template partial  specialization  mem-
  bers  that  are  used  in  a  way  that requires a definition shall be
  defined; the definitions of members of the primary template are  never
  used  as  definitions for members of a class template partial special-
  ization.  An explicit specialization of a member of a  class  template
  partial specialization is declared in the same way as an explicit spe-
  cialization of the primary template.  [Example:
          // primary template
          template<class T, int I> struct A {
                  void f();
          };

          template<class T, int I> void A<T,I>::f() { }
          // class template partial specialization
          template<class T> struct A<T,2> {
                  void f();
                  void g();
                  void h();
          };

          // member of class template partial specialization
          template<class T> void A<T,2>::g() { }

          // explicit specialization
          template<> void A<char,2>::h() { }

          int main()
          {
                  A<char,0> a0;
                  A<char,2> a2;
                  a0.f(); // ok, uses definition of primary template's member
                  a2.g(); // ok, uses definition of
                          // partial specialization's member
                  a2.h(); // ok, uses definition of
                          // explicit specialization's member
                  a2.f(); // ill-formed, no definition of f for A<T,2>
                          // the primary template is not used here
          }
   --end example]

  14.5.5  Function templates                                  [temp.fct]

1 A function template defines an unbounded  set  of  related  functions.
  [Example: a family of sort functions might be declared like this:
          template<class T> class Array { };
          template<class T> void sort(Array<T>&);
   --end example]

2 A  function  template  can be overloaded with other function templates
  and with normal (non-template) functions.  A normal  function  is  not
  related  to  a function template (i.e., it is never considered to be a
  specialization), even if it has the same name and  type  as  a  poten-
  tially generated function template specialization.3)

  14.5.5.1  Function template overloading               [temp.over.link]

1 It  is  possible  to overload function templates so that two different
  function template specializations have the same type.  [Example:
          // file1.c                     // file2.c
          template<class T>              template<class T>
              void f(T*);                    void f(T);
          void g(int* p) {               void h(int* p) {
              f(p); // call                  f(p); // call
                    // f<int>(int*)                // f<int*>(int*)
          }                              }
   --end example]

2 Such specializations are distinct functions and do not violate the one
  definition rule (_basic.def.odr_).

  _________________________
  3) That is, declarations of non-template functions do not merely guide
  overload resolution of template functions with the same name.  If such
  a  non-template  function is used in a program, it must be defined; it
  will not be implicitly instantiated using the function template  defi-
  nition.

3 The  signature  of  a function template specialization consists of the
  signature of the function template and of the  actual  template  argu-
  ments (whether explicitly specified or deduced).

4 The  signature  of a function template consists of its function signa-
  ture, its return type and its template parameter list.  The  names  of
  the  template  parameters  are  significant  only for establishing the
  relationship between the template parameters and the rest of the  sig-
  nature.

  14.5.5.2  Partial ordering of function               [temp.func.order]
       templates

1 Given two function templates, whether one  is  more  specialized  than
  another  can  be  determined by transforming each template in turn and
  using argument deduction (_temp.deduct_) to compare it to the other.

2 The transformation used is:

  --For each type template parameter, synthesize a unique type and  sub-
    stitute  that  for each occurrence of that parameter in the function
    parameter list.

  --For each non-type template parameter, synthesize a unique  value  of
    the appropriate type and substitute that for each occurrence of that
    parameter in the function parameter list.

3 Using the transformed function parameter list, perform argument deduc-
  tion against the other function template.  The transformed template is
  at least as specialized as the other if, and only  if,  the  deduction
  succeeds  and  the  deduced parameter types are an exact match (so the
  deduction does not rely on implicit conversions).

4 A template is more specialized than another if, and only if, it is  at
  least as specialized as the other template and that template is not at
  least as specialized as the first.  [Example:
          template<class T> struct A { A(); };

          template<class T> void f(T);
          template<class T> void f(T*);
          template<class T> void f(const T*);

          template<class T> void g(T);
          template<class T> void g(T&);

          template<class T> void h(const T&);
          template<class T> void h(A<T>&);

          void m() {
                  const int *p;
                  f(p);  // f(const T*) is more specialized than f(T) or f(T*)
                  float x;
                  g(x);  // Ambiguous: g(T) or g(T&)
                  A<int> z;
                  h(z);  // Ambiguous: h(A<T>&) and h(const T&) are not comparable
                  const A<int> z2;
                  h(z2); // h(const T&) is called because h(A<T>&) is not callable
          }
   --end example]

  14.6  Name resolution                                       [temp.res]

1 A name used in a template is assumed not to name  a  type  unless  the
  applicable  name  lookup finds a type name or the name is qualified by
  the keyword typename.  [Example:
          // no B declared here

          class X;

          template<class T> class Y {
                  class Z; // forward declaration of member class

                  void f() {
                          X* a1;    // declare pointer to X
                          T* a2;    // declare pointer to T
                          Y* a3;    // declare pointer to Y<T>
                          Z* a4;    // declare pointer to Z
                          typedef typename T::A TA;
                          TA* a5;   // declare pointer to T's A
                          typename T::A* a6;   // declare pointer to T's A
                          T::A* a7; // T::A is not a type name:
                          // multiply T::A by a7
                          B* a8;    // B is not a type name:
                          // multiply B by a8; ill-formed,
                          // no visible declaration of B
                  }
          };
   --end example]

2 A qualified-name that refers to a type and that depends on a template-
  parameter  (_temp.dep_)  shall  be prefixed by the keyword typename to
  indicate that the qualified-name denotes a  type,  forming  an  elabo-
  rated-type-specifier (_dcl.type.elab_).
          elaborated-type-specifier:
                  . . .
                  typename ::opt  nested-name-specifier identifier
                  typename ::opt  nested-name-specifier identifier < template-argument-list >
                  . . .

3 If  a  specialization  of a template is instantiated for a set of tem-
  plate-arguments such that the qualified-name prefixed by typename does
  not  denote  a  type,  the  specialization  is  ill-formed.  The usual

  qualified name lookup (_basic.lookup.qual_) is used to find the quali-
  fied-name even in the presence of typename.  [Example:
          struct A {
                  struct X { };
                  int X;
          };
          template<class T> void f(T t) {
                  typename T::X x; // ill-formed: finds the data member X
                                   // not the member type X
          }
   --end example]

4 The keyword typename is not permitted in a base-specifier or in a mem-
  initializer.  In these contexts a qualified-name  that  depends  on  a
  template-parameter  (_temp.dep_)  is  implicitly  assumed to be a type
  name.

5 Knowing which names are type names allows the syntax of every template
  definition  to  be  checked.  No diagnostic shall be issued for a tem-
  plate definition for which a valid specialization  can  be  generated.
  If no valid specialization can be generated for a template definition,
  and that template is not instantiated, it is  unspecified  whether  or
  not  an implementation is required to issue a diagnostic.  [Note: if a
  template is instantiated, errors will be diagnosed  according  to  the
  other rules in this Standard.  Exactly when these errors are diagnosed
  is a quality of implementation issue.  ] [Example:
          int j;
          template<class T> class X {
                  // ...
                  void f(T t, int i, char* p)
                  {
                          t = i;  // diagnosed if X::f is instantiated
                                  // and the assignment to t is an error
                          p = i;  // may be diagnosed even if X::f is
                                  // not instantiated
                          p = j;  // may be diagnosed even if X::f is
                                  // not instantiated
                  }
                  void g(T t) {
                          +;      // may be diagnosed even if X::g is
                                  // not instantiated
                  }
          };
   --end example]

6 Three kinds of names can be used within a template definition:

  --The name of the template itself, the names of  the  template-parame-
    ters  (_temp.param_), and names declared within the template itself.

  --Names dependent on a template-argument (_temp.dep_).

  --Names from scopes which are visible within the template  definition.

7 When looking for the declaration of a name used in a template function
  definition or static data member template definition, the usual lookup
  rules (_basic.lookup.unqual_, _basic.lookup.koenig_) are used for non-
  dependent names.  The lookup of names dependent on the template  argu-
  ments  is  postponed  until  the  actual  template  argument  is known
  (_temp.dep_).  [Example:
          #include <iostream>
          using namespace std;

          template<class T> class Set {
                  T* p;
                  int cnt;
          public:
                  Set();
                  Set<T>(const Set<T>&);
                  void printall()
                  {
                          for (int i = 0; i<cnt; i++)
                                  cout << p[i] << '\n';
                  }
                  // ...
          };
  in the example, i is the local variable i declared in printall, cnt is
  the member cnt declared in Set, and cout is the standard output stream
  declared in iostream.  However, not every  declaration  can  be  found
  this  way;  the  resolution  of some names must be postponed until the
  actual template-arguments are known.  For  example,  even  though  the
  name  operator<<  is  known  within the definition of printall() and a
  declaration of it can be found in <iostream>, the  actual  declaration
  of  operator<<  needed to print p[i] cannot be known until it is known
  what type T is (_temp.dep_).  ]

8 If a name does not  depend  on  a  template-argument  (as  defined  in
  _temp.dep_),  a  declaration  (or  set  of declarations) for that name
  shall be in scope at the point where the name appears in the  template
  definition;  the  name  is  bound to the declaration (or declarations)
  found at that point and this binding is not affected  by  declarations
  that are visible at the point of instantiation.  [Example:
          void f(char);

          template<class T> void g(T t)
          {
                  f(1);     // f(char)
                  f(T(1));  // dependent
                  f(t);     // dependent
                  dd++;      // not dependent
                             // error: declaration for dd not found
          }

          void f(int);

          double dd;
          void h()
          {
                  g(2);   // will cause one call of f(char) followed
                          //  by two calls of f(int)
                  g('a'); // will cause three calls of f(char)
          }
   --end example]

  14.6.1  Locally declared names                            [temp.local]

1 Within  the  scope of a class template, the name of the template, when
  not followed by <, is equivalent to the name of the template  followed
  by  the template-parameters enclosed in <>.  [Example: the constructor
  for Set can be referred to as Set() or Set<T>().  ] Other  specializa-
  tions (_temp.expl.spec_) of the class can be referred to by explicitly
  qualifying the template name with the appropriate  template-arguments.
  [Example:
          template<class T> class X {
                  X* p;           // meaning X<T>
                  X<T>* p2;
                  X<int>* p3;
          };
   --end example]

2 Within  the  scope of a class template specialization, the name of the
  specialization is equivalent to the name of  the  specialization  fol-
  lowed by the template-arguments enclosed in <>.  [Example:
          template<class T> class Y;

          template<> class Y<int> {
                  Y* p;           // meaning Y<int>
          };
   --end example]

3 The  scope  of a template-parameter extends from its point of declara-
  tion until the end of its template.  A  template-parameter  hides  any
  entity with the same name in the enclosing scope.  [Note: this implies
  that a template-parameter can be used in the declaration of subsequent
  template-parameters  and their default arguments but cannot be used in
  preceding template-parameters or their default arguments.   For  exam-
  ple,
          template<class T, T* p, class U = T> class X { /* ... */ };
          template<class T> void f(T* p = new T);
  This  also implies that a template-parameter can be used in the speci-
  fication of base classes.  For example,
          template<class T> class X : public Array<T> { /* ... */ };
          template<class T> class Y : public T { /* ... */ };
  The use of a template-parameter as a base class implies that  a  class
  used as a template-argument must be defined and not just declared when
  the class template is instantiated.  ]

4 A template-parameter shall not be redeclared within its scope (includ-
  ing nested scopes).  A template-parameter shall not have the same name
  as the template name.  [Example:
          template<class T, int i> class Y {
                  int T;  // error: template-parameter redeclared
                  void f() {
                          char T; // error: template-parameter redeclared
                  }
          };

          template<class X> class X; // error: template-parameter redeclared
   --end example]

5 In the definition of a member of a class template that appears outside
  of  the  class  template definition, the name of a member of this tem-
  plate hides the name of a template-parameter.  [Example:
          template<class T> struct A {
                  struct B { /* ... */ };
                  void f();
          };

          template<class B> void A<B>::f()
          {
                  B b;  // A's B, not the template parameter
          }
   --end example]

6 In the definition of a class template or in the definition of a member
  of  such  a  template that appears outside of the template definition,
  the name of a base class and, if the base class does not depend  on  a
  template-argument, the name of a base class member hides the name of a
  template-parameter with the same name.  [Example:
          struct A {
                  struct B { /* ... */ };
                  int a;
                  int Y;
          };

          template<class B, class a> struct X : A {
                  B b;  // A's B
                  a b;  // error: A's a isn't a type name
          };
   --end example]

  14.6.2  Dependent names                                     [temp.dep]

1 Inside a template, some constructs have  semantics  which  may  differ
  from  one  instantiation  to another.  Such a construct depends on the
  template argument.  In particular, types and expressions may depend on
  the  type  and or value of templates arguments and this determines the
  context for name lookup for certain names.  Expressions may  be  type-
  dependent  (on the type of a template argument) or value-dependent (on
  the value of a non-type template argument).  In an expression  of  the
  form:

        postfix-expression ( expression-listopt )
  where the postfix-expression is an identifier, the identifer denotes a
  dependent name if and only if any of the expressions  in  the  expres-
  sion-list  is  a  type-dependent  expression (_temp.dep.expr_).  If an
  operand of an operator is a type-dependent  expression,  the  operator
  also  denotes a dependent name.  Such names are unbound and are looked
  up at the point of the template instantiation (_temp.point_)  in  both
  the context of the template definition and the context of the point of
  instantiation.

2 [Example:
          template<class T> struct X : B<T> {
                  typename T::A* pa;
                  void f(B<T>* pb) {
                          static int i = B<T>::i;
                          pb->j++;
                  }
          };
  the base class name B<T>, the type name T::A, the  names  B<T>::i  and
  pb->j  explicitly depend on the template-argument.  This shows a typi-
  cal dependent operator call:
          class Horse { /* ... */ };

          ostream& operator<<(ostream&,const Horse&);

          void hh(Set<Horse>& h)
          {
                  h.printall();
          }
  In the call of Set<Horse>::printall(), the meaning of the <<  operator
  used   to   print   p[i]   in  the  definition  of  Set<T>::printall()
  (_temp.res_), is
          operator<<(ostream&,const Horse&);
  This function takes an argument of type Horse and  is  called  from  a
  template  with  a template-parameter T for which the template-argument
  is Horse.  Because this function depends on a  template-argument,  the
  call  is  well-formed.   Some calls that depend on a template-argument
  type T are:

  1)The function called has a parameter that depends on T  according  to
    the  type  deduction  rules  (_temp.deduct_).   For  example,  f(T),
    f(Array<T>), and f(const T*).

  2)The type of the actual argument depends on T.  For example, f(T(1)),
    f(t), f(g(t)), and f(&t) assuming that t has the type T.

  3)A call is resolved by the use of a conversion to T without either an
    argument or a parameter of the called function being of a type  that
    depends on T as specified in (1) and (2).  For example,

              struct B { };
              struct T : B { };
              struct X { operator T(); };

              void f(B);

              void g(X x)
              {
                      f(x);  // meaning f( B( x.operator T() ) )
                             // so the call f(x) depends on T
              }
    This ill-formed template instantiation uses a function that does not
    depend on a template-argument:
              template<class T> class Z {
              public:
                      void f() const
                      {
                              g(1); // g() not found in Z's context.
                                    // ill-formed, even if g is declared at
                                    // the point of instantiation.  This
                                    // could be diagnosed either here or
                                    // at the point of instantiation.
                      }
              };
              void g(int);
              void h(const Z<Horse>& x)
              {
                      x.f(); // error: g(int) called by g(1) does not depend
                             // on template-argument ``Horse''
              }
    The call x.f() gives rise to the specialization:
              void Z<Horse>::f() { g(1); }
    The call g(1) would call g(int), but since that call does not depend
    on the template-argument Horse and because g(int) wasn't in scope at
    the  point of the definition of the template, the call x.f() is ill-
    formed.

3 On the other hand:
          void h(const Z<int>& y)
          {
                  y.f(); // fine: g(int) called by g(1) depends
                         // on template-argument ``int''
          }
  Here, the call y.f() gives rise to the specialization:
          void Z<int>::f() { g(1); }
  The call g(1) calls g(int), and since that call depends  on  the  tem-
  plate-argument  int,  the  call y.f() is acceptable even though g(int)
  wasn't in scope at the point of the template definition.  ]

4 In the definition of a class template or in the definition of a member
  of such template that appears outside of the template definition, if a
  base class of this template depends on a template-argument,  the  base
  class  scope  is not examined during name look up until the class tem-
  plate is instantiated.  [Example:

          typedef double A;
          template<class T> B {
                  typedef int A;
          };
          template<class T> struct X : B<T> {
                  A a;
          };
  X<T>::a has type double.  The type name A binds to  the  typedef  name
  defined in the global namespace scope, not to the typedef name defined
  in the base class B<T>.  ]

5 If a template-argument is a used as a base class,  a  member  of  that
  class  cannot  hide  a name declared within a template, or a name from
  the template's enclosing scopes.  [Example:
          struct A {
                  struct B { /* ... */ };
                  int a;
                  int Y;
          };

          int a;
          template<class T> struct Y : T {
                  struct B { /* ... */ };
                  B b;                     // The B defined in Y
                  void f(int i) { a = i; } // ::a
                  Y* p;                    // Y<T>
          };

          Y<A> ya;
  The members A::B, A::a, and A::Y of the template  argument  A  do  not
  affect the binding of names in Y<A>.  ]

  14.6.2.1  Dependent types                              [temp.dep.type]

1 A type is dependent if it is

  --a template parameter,

  --a  qualified-id  whose  nested-name-specifier  contains a class-name
    that names a dependent type or whose unqualified-id names  a  depen-
    dent type,

  --a cv-qualified type where the unqualified type is dependent,

  --a compound type constructed from any dependent type,

  --an  array  type constructed from any dependent type or whose size is
    specified by a constant expression that is value-dependent,

  --a template-id in which either the template name is a template param-
    eter  or  any  of  the  template arguments is a dependent type or an
    expression that is type-dependent or value-dependent.

  14.6.2.2  Type-dependent expressions                   [temp.dep.expr]

1 Except as described below, an  expression  is  type-dependent  if  any
  subexpression is type-dependent.

2 this is type-dependent if the class type of the enclosing member func-
  tion is dependent (_temp.dep.type_).

3 An id-expression is type-dependent if it contains:

  --an identifier that was declared with a dependent type,

  --a template-id that is dependent,

  --a conversion-function-id that specifies a dependent type,

  --a nested-name-specifier that contains  a  class-name  that  names  a
    dependent type.

4 Expressions of the following forms are type-dependent only if the type
  specified by the  type-id,  simple-type-specifier  or  new-type-id  is
  dependent, even if any subexpression is type-dependent:
          simple-type-specifier ( expression-listopt )
          ::opt new new-placementopt new-type-id new-initializeropt
          ::opt new new-placementopt ( type-id ) new-initializeropt
          dynamic_cast < type-id > ( expression )
          static_cast < type-id > ( expression )
          const_cast < type-id > ( expression )
          reinterpret_cast < type-id > ( expression )
          ( type-id ) cast-expression

5 Expressions  of  the following forms are never type-dependent (because
  the type of the expression cannot be dependent):
          literal
          postfix-expression . pseudo-destructor-name
          postfix-expression -> pseudo-destructor-name
          sizeof unary-expression
          sizeof ( type-id )
          typeid ( expression )
          typeid ( type-id )
          ::opt delete cast-expression
          ::opt delete [ ] cast-expression
          throw assignment-expressionopt

  14.6.2.3  Value-dependent expressions             [temp.dep.constexpr]

1 Except as described below, a constant expression is value-dependent if
  any subexpression is value-dependent.

2 An identifier is value-dependent if it is:

  --a name declared with a dependent type,

  --the name of a non-type template parameter,

  --a constant with integral or enumeration type and is initialized with
    an expression that is value-dependent.

3 Expressions of the following form are value-dependent  if  the  unary-
  expression  is  type-dependent  or  the  type-id is dependent (even if
  sizeof unary-expression and sizeof ( type-id  )  are  not  type-depen-
  dent):
          sizeof unary-expression
          sizeof ( type-id )

4 Expressions  of  the  following form are value-dependent if either the
  type-id or simple-type-specifier is dependent  or  the  expression  or
  cast-expression is value-dependent:
          simple-type-specifier ( expression-listopt )
          static_cast < type-id > ( expression )
          const_cast < type-id > ( expression )
          reinterpret_cast < type-id > ( expression )
          ( type-id ) cast-expression

  14.6.2.4  Dependent template arguments                 [temp.dep.temp]

1 A template template argument is dependent if it names a template argu-
  ment or is a qualified-id where the nested-name-specifier  contains  a
  class-name that names a dependent type.

2 A  non-integral  non-type  template  argument  is  dependent if it has
  either of the following forms
          qualified-id
          & qualified-id
  and the nested-name-specifier specifies  a  class-name  that  names  a
  dependent type.

3 A  type  template  argument  is  dependent if the type it specifies is
  dependent.

4 An integral non-type template argument is dependent  if  the  constant
  expression it specifies is value-dependent.

  14.6.3  Non-dependent names                              [temp.nondep]

1 Non-dependent  names used in a template definition are found using the
  usual name lookup and bound at the point they are used.  [Example:

          void g(double);
          void h();

          template<class T> class Z {
          public:
                  void f() {
                          g(1); // calls g(double)
                          h++;  // error: cannot increment function
                  }
          };

          void g(int); // not in scope at the point of the template
                       // definition, not considered for the call g(1)
   --end example]

  14.6.4  Dependent name resolution                       [temp.dep.res]

1 In resolving dependent names, names from  the  following  sources  are
  considered:

  --Declarations that are visible at the point of definition of the tem-
    plate.

  --Declarations from namespaces associated with the types of the  func-
    tion  arguments  both  from the instantiation context (_temp.point_)
    and from the definition context.

  14.6.4.1  Point of instantiation                          [temp.point]

1 If a  function  template  specialization  is  implicitly  instantiated
  because  it  is referenced from a function call that depends on a tem-
  plate argument, the point of instantiation of  the  function  template
  specialization  is  the  point  of instantiation of the specialization
  containing the dependent function call.

2 Otherwise, if a function template specialization is implicitly instan-
  tiated  because it is referenced within a default argument in a decla-
  ration, the point of instantiation of the function  template  special-
  ization  immediately precedes the namespace scope declaration or defi-
  nition that refers to the function template specialization.

3 Otherwise, the point of instantiation of a function template  special-
  ization immediately follows the namespace scope declaration or defini-
  tion that refers to the specialization.

4 The instantiation context of a function call that depends on the  tem-
  plate arguments is the set of declarations with external linkage visi-
  ble at the point of instantiation of the template specialization  con-
  taining the dependent function call.

  14.6.4.2  Candidate Functions                     [temp.dep.candidate]

1 For  a function call that depends on a template argument, if the func-
  tion name is an unqualified-id,  the  candidate  functions  are  found
  using     the     usual     lookup    rules    (_basic.lookup.unqual_,
  _basic.lookup.koenig_) except that:

  --For  the  part  of  the  lookup  using   unqualified   name   lookup
    (_basic.lookup.unqual_),  only  function  declarations with external
    linkage from the template definition context are found.

  --For  the  part   of   the   lookup   using   associated   namespaces
    (_basic.lookup.koenig_),  only  function  declarations with external
    linkage found in either the template definition context or the  tem-
    plate instantiation context are found.

  If  the  call would be ill-formed or would find a better match had the
  lookup within the associated namespaces considered  all  the  function
  declarations  with  external linkage introduced in those namespaces in
  all translation units, not just considered those declarations found in
  the  template definition and template instantiation contexts, then the
  program has undefined behavior.

  14.6.4.3  Conversions                                  [temp.dep.conv]

1 Any standard conversion sequence (_over.ics.scs_) may be applied to an
  argument  in  a  function call that depends on a template argument.  A
  user-defined conversion sequence (_over.ics.user_) may be  applied  to
  an  argument  in  a function call that depends on a template argument,
  but the user-defined conversion in this sequence  shall  either  be  a
  conversion function that is a member function of the class type of the
  argument, or shall be a constructor of the class type that is the tar-
  get  type  of  the user-defined conversion sequence.  The user-defined
  conversion function thus selected shall be found either  in  the  tem-
  plate  definition  context  or  in the template instantiation context.
  [Note: The set of candidate functions is formed first, before  conver-
  sions  are  considered,  so the possible conversions do not affect the
  set of candidate functions.  ]

  14.6.5  Friend names declared within a class             [temp.inject]
       template

1 Friend  classes  or functions can be declared within a class template.
  When a template is instantiated, the names of its friends are  treated
  as  if the specialization had been explicitly declared at its point of
  instantiation.

2 The names of friend functions of a class template  specialization  are
  found  by  the  usual lookup rules, including the rules for associated
  namespaces (_basic.lookup.koenig_).4) [Example:
  _________________________
  4) Friend declarations do not introduce new names into any scope,  ei-
  ther when the template is declared or when it is instantiated.

          template<typename T> class number {
                  //...
                  friend number<T> gcd(const number<T>& x,
                                       const number<T>& y) { ... }
                  //...
          };
          void g()
          {
                  number<double> a, b;
                  //...
                  a = gcd(a,b);   // looks inside number<double> for gcd
          }
   --end example]

  14.7  Template specialization                              [temp.spec]

1 A  class  instantiated from a class template is called an instantiated
  class.  A function instantiated from a function template is called  an
  instantiated  function.   A  static  data  member  instantiated from a
  static data member template is called an instantiated static data mem-
  ber.   The act of instantiating a class, function, or static data mem-
  ber from a template is referred to as template instantiation.  A class
  declaration  introduced by template<> is called an explicitly special-
  ized class.  The name of the class in such a  definition  shall  be  a
  template-id.   A  function  declaration  introduced  by  template<> is
  called an explicitly specialized function.  The name of  the  function
  in such a declaration may be a template-id.  A static data member dec-
  laration introduced by template<> is called an explicitly  specialized
  static data member.  The name of the class in such a declaration shall
  be a template-id.  [Example:
          template<class T = int> struct A
          {
                  static int x;
          };
          template<class U> void g(U) { }

          template<> struct A<double> { };  // specialize for T == double
          template<> struct A<> { };        // specialize for T == int
          template<> void g(char) { }       // specialize for U == char
                                            // U is deduced from the parameter type
          template<> void g<int>(int) { }   // specialize for U == int
          template<> int A<char>::x = 0;    // specialize for T == char
          template<> int A<>::x = 1;        // specialize for T == int
   --end example]

2 An instantiated  template  specialization  can  be  either  implicitly
  instantiated  (_temp.inst_) for a given argument list or be explicitly
  instantiated (_temp.explicit_).  A specialization is  a  class,  func-
  tion,  or static data member that is either instantiated or explicitly
  specialized (_temp.expl.spec_).  A template that has been  used  in  a
  way  that  requires a specialization of its definition causes the spe-
  cialization to be implicitly instantiated unless it  has  been  either
  explicitly instantiated or explicitly specialized.

3 No  program  shall explicitly instantiate any template more than once,
  both explicitly instantiate and explicitly specialize a  template,  or
  specialize a template more than once for a given set of template-argu-
  ments.  An implementation is not required to diagnose a  violation  of
  this rule.

4 Each  class  template  specialization instantiated from a template has
  its own copy of any static members.  [Example:
          template<class T> class X {
                  static T s;
                  // ...
          };
          template<class T> T X<T>::s = 0;
          X<int> aa;
          X<char*> bb;
  X<int> has a static member s of type int and  X<char*>  has  a  static
  member s of type char*.  ]

  14.7.1  Implicit instantiation                             [temp.inst]

1 Unless  a  class template specialization has been explicitly instanti-
  ated (_temp.explicit_) or explicitly  specialized  (_temp.expl.spec_),
  the  class template specialization is implicitly instantiated when the
  specialization is referenced in a context that requires a  completely-
  defined  object  type.   Unless a function template specialization has
  been explicitly instantiated or explicitly specialized,  the  function
  template  specialization  is implicitly instantiated when the special-
  ization is referenced in a context that requires a function definition
  to  exist.   Unless  a static data member template has been explicitly
  instantiated or explicitly specialized, the static  data  member  tem-
  plate  specialization  is implicitly instantiated when the specializa-
  tion is used in a way that requires a definition for the  static  data
  member.

2 [Example:
          template<class T> class Z {
          public:
                  void f();
                  void g();
          };
          void h()
          {
                  Z<int> a;     // instantiation of class Z<int> required
                  Z<char>* p;   // instantiation of class Z<char> not
                                // required
                  Z<double>* q; // instantiation of class Z<double>
                                // not required

                  a.f();  // instantiation of Z<int>::f() required
                  p->g(); // instantiation of class Z<char> required, and
                          // instantiation of Z<char>::g() required
          }
  Nothing  in  this  example  requires  class Z<double>, Z<int>::g(), or
  Z<char>::f() to be implicitly instantiated.  ]

3 If a class template for which a definition is in scope is  used  in  a
  way  that involves overload resolution, conversion to a base class, or
  pointer to member conversion, the  class  template  specialization  is
  implicitly instantiated.  [Example:
          template<class T> class B { /* ... */ };
          template<class T> class D : public B<T> { /* ... */ };

          void f(void*);
          void f(B<int>*);

          void g(D<int>* p, D<char>* pp)
          {
                  f(p); // instantiation of D<int> required: call f(B<int>*)

                  B<char>* q = pp; // instantiation of D<char> required:
                                   // convert D<char>* to B<char>*
          }
   --end example]

4 If  the overload resolution process can determine the correct function
  to call without instantiating  a  class  template  definition,  it  is
  unspecified  whether  that instantiation actually takes place.  [Exam-
  ple:
          template <class T> struct S {
                  operator int();
          };

          void f(int);
          void f(S<int>&);
          void f(S<float>);

          void g(S<int>& sr) {
                  f(sr);  // instantiation of S<int> allowed but not required
                          // instantiation of S<float> allowed but not required
          };
   --end example]

5 If an implicit instantiation of a  class  template  specialization  is
  required  and the template is declared but not defined, the program is
  ill-formed.  [Example:
          template<class T> class X;

          X<char> ch; // error: definition of X required
   --end example]

6 If a function template for which a declaration is in scope is used  in
  a  way  that involves overload resolution, a declaration of a function
  template specialization is implicitly instantiated (_temp.over_).

7 An implementation shall not implicitly instantiate  a  function,  non-
  virtual  member  function,  class  or  member  template  that does not
  require instantiation.  It is unspecified whether or not an  implemen-
  tation implicitly instantiates a virtual member function that does not
  require specialization.

8 Implicitly instantiated class template, function, and static data mem-
  ber specializations are placed in the namespace where the template was
  defined.  [Example:
          namespace N {
                  template<class T> class List {
                  public:
                          T* get();
                          // ...
                  };
          }
          template<class K, class V> class Map {
                  N::List<V> lt;
                  V get(K);
                  //  ...
          };
          void g(Map<char*,int>& m)
          {
                  int i = m.get("Nicholas");
                  // ...
          }
  a  call   of   lt.get()   from   Map<char*,int>::get()   would   place
  List<int>::get()  in  the namespace N rather than in the global names-
  pace.  ]

9 [Note: _temp.point_ defines the point of instantiation of  a  template
  specialization.  ]

10If a virtual function is implicitly instantiated, its point of instan-
  tiation is immediately following the point of  instantiation  for  its
  class.

11The point of instantiation for a template used inside another template
  and not instantiated previous to an  instantiation  of  the  enclosing
  template  is  immediately  before  the  point  of instantiation of the
  enclosing template.

12There is an implementation-defined quantity that specifies  the  limit
  on  the  depth of recursive instantiations.  The result of an infinite
  recursion in instantiation is undefined.  [Example:
          template<class T> class X {
                  X<T>* p; // ok
                  X<T*> a; // implicit generation of X<T> requires
                           // the implicit instantiation of X<T*> which requires
                           // the implicit instantiation of X<T**> which ...
          };
   --end example]

  14.7.2  Explicit instantiation                         [temp.explicit]

1 A class, function or static data member specialization can be  explic-
  itly instantiated from its template.

2 The syntax for explicit instantiation is:

          explicit-instantiation:
                  template declaration
  where  the  unqualified-id  in  the declaration shall be either a tem-
  plate-id or, where all template arguments can be deduced, a  template-
  name.   [Note:  the  declaration  may declare a qualified-id, in which
  case the unqualified-id of the qualified-id must be a template-id.   ]
  [Example:
          template<class T> class Array { /* ... */ };
          template class Array<char>;

          template<class T> void sort(Array<T>& v) { /* ... */ }
          template void sort(Array<char>&); // argument is deduced here

          namespace N {
                  template<class T> void f(T&) { }
          }
          template void N::f<int>(int&);
   --end example]

3 A declaration of a function template shall be in scope at the point of
  an explicit instantiation of the function template.  A  definition  of
  the  class  template  shall  be  in scope at the point of the explicit
  instantiation of the class template.  A declaration of the static data
  member template shall be in scope at the point of the explicit instan-
  tiation of the static data member template.  If the declaration  names
  a compiler-generated function, the program is ill-formed.

4 The  definition  of  a  non-exported function template or non-exported
  data member template shall be present in  every  translation  unit  in
  which it is explicitly instantiated.

5 An explicit instantiation of a template specialization is in the scope
  of the namespace in which the template was defined.  [Example:
          namespace N {
                  template<class T> class Y { /* ... */ };
          }

          template class Y<int>; // error: class template Y not visible
                                 // in the global namespace

          using N::Y;
          template class Y<int>; // ok: explicit instantiation in namespace N

          template class N::Y<char*>; // ok: explicit instantiation in namespace N
   --end example]

6 A trailing template-argument can be left unspecified  in  an  explicit
  instantiation of a function template specialization provided it can be
  deduced from the function argument type (_temp.deduct_).  [Example:
          template<class T> class Array { /* ... */ };
          template<class T> void sort(Array<T>& v);

          // instantiate sort(Array<int>&) - template-argument deduced
          template void sort<>(Array<int>&);

   --end example]

7 The  explicit instantiation of a class template specialization implies
  the instantiation of all of its members not previously explicitly spe-
  cialized  in  the  translation unit containing the explicit instantia-
  tion.  A member class of a class template may be explicitly  instanti-
  ated.

8 The  usual  access  checking rules do not apply to explicit instantia-
  tions.  [Note: In particular, the template arguments and names used in
  the  function  declarator (including parameter types, return types and
  exception specifications) may be private types or objects which  would
  normally  not  be accessible and the template may be a member template
  or member function which would not normally be accessible.  ]

  14.7.3  Explicit specialization                       [temp.expl.spec]

1 An explicit specialization of any of the following:

  --function template

  --class template

  --member function of a class template

  --static data member of a class template

  --member class of a class template

  --member class template of a class template

  --member function template of a class template

  can be declared by a declaration introduced by template<>; that is:
          explicit-specialization:
                  template < > declaration
  [Example:
          template<class T> class stream;

          template<> class stream<char> { /* ... */ };
          template<class T> class Array { /* ... */ };
          template<class T> void sort(Array<T>& v) { /* ... */ }

          template<> void sort<char*>(Array<char*>&) ;
  Given these declarations, stream<char> will be used as the  definition
  of  streams  of chars; other streams will be handled by class template
  specializations instantiated  from  the  class  template.   Similarly,
  sort<char*>  will  be  used as the sort function for arguments of type
  Array<char*>; other Array types will be sorted by functions  generated
  from the template.  ]

2 An  explicit specialization must be declared in the namespace of which
  it is a member, or, for class members, in the namespace of  which  the
  class  is  a member.  Such a declaration may also be a definition.  If

  the declaration is not a definition, the specialization may be defined
  later  in  the  namespace  in  which  the  explicit specialization was
  declared, or in a  namespace  that  encloses  the  one  in  which  the
  explicit specialization was declared.

3 Default  function arguments shall not be specified in a declaration or
  a definition of an explicit specialization.

4 A declaration of the template being explicitly specialized shall be in
  scope  at  the point of declaration of an explicit specialization.  If
  the declaration names a implicitly-declared  special  member  function
  (_special_), the program is ill-formed.  [Note: a declaration, but not
  a definition of the template is required.  ] [Example:
          template<> class X<int> { /* ... */ }; // error: X not a template

          template<class T> class X;

          template<> class X<char*> { /* ... */ }; // fine: X is a template
   --end example]

5 If a template is explicitly specialized then that specialization shall
  be  declared  before  the  first use of that specialization that would
  cause an implicit instantiation to take place,  in  every  translation
  unit in which such a use occurs.  [Example:
          template<class T> class Array { /* ... */ };
          template<class T> void sort(Array<T>& v) { /* ... */ }

          void f(Array<String>& v)
          {
                  sort(v); // use primary template
                           // sort(Array<T>&), T is String
          }

          template<> void sort<String>(Array<String>& v); // error: specialization
                                                   // after use of primary template
          template<> void sort<>(Array<char*>& v); // fine sort<char*> not yet used
    --end  example]  If a function, class or static data member template
  has been explicitly specialized for a template-argument-list, no  spe-
  cialization  shall  be implicitly instantiated for that template-argu-
  ment-list.

6 A template explicit specialization is in the scope of the namespace in
  which the template was defined.  [Example:

          namespace N {
                  template<class T> class X { /* ... */ };
                  template<class T> class Y { /* ... */ };

                  template<> class X<int> { /* ... */ }; // ok: specialization
                                                         //     in same namespace
                  template<> class Y<double>;            // forward declare intent to
                                                         // specialize for double
          }

          template<> class N::Y<double> { /* ... */ }; // ok: specialization
                                                       //     in same namespace
   --end example]

7 A template-id that names a class template explicit specialization that
  has been declared but not defined can be used exactly like  the  names
  of other incompletely-defined classes (_basic.types_).  [Example:
          template<class T> class X; // X is a class template
          template<> class X<int>;

          X<int>* p; // ok: pointer to declared class X<int>
          X<int> x; // error: object of incomplete class X<int>
   --end example]

8 A  trailing  template-argument  can be left unspecified in an explicit
  function template specialization provided it can be deduced  from  the
  function argument type.  [Example:
          template<class T> class Array { /* ... */ };
          template<class T> void sort(Array<T>& v);

          // explicit specialization for sort(Array<int>&)
          // with deduces template-argument of type int
          template<> void sort(Array<int>&);
   --end example]

9 It is possible for a specialization with a given function signature to
  be instantiated from more than one function template.  In such  cases,
  explicit  specification  of  the  template  arguments  must be used to
  uniquely identify the function template specialization being  special-
  ized.  [Example:
          template <class T> void f(T);
          template <class T> void f(T*);
          template <>        void f(int*);        // Ambiguous
          template <>        void f<int>(int*);   // OK
          template <>        void f(int);         // OK
   --end example]

10A  function  with  the same name as a template and a type that exactly
  matches that of a template specialization is not an explicit  special-
  ization (_temp.fct_).

11An explicit specialization of a function template is inline only if it
  is explicitly declared to be, and independently of whether  its  func-
  tion template is.  [Example:

          template<class T> void f(T) { /* ... */ }
          template<class T> inline T g(T) { /* ... */ }

          template<> inline void f<>(int) { /* ... */ } // ok: inline
          template<> int g<>(int) { /* ... */ } // ok: not inline
   --end example]

12Member  function  templates,  member  class  templates of non-template
  classes and class template specializations may be specialized  in  the
  same manner as function templates and class templates.

13A  specialization  of  a member function template or member class tem-
  plate of a non-specialized class template is itself a template.

14An explicit specialization of a static data member of a template is  a
  definition  if  the declaration includes an initializer; otherwise, it
  is a declaration.  [Note: there is no syntax for the definition  of  a
  static data member of a template that requires default initialization.
          template<> X Q<int>::x;
  This is a declaration regardless of whether X can be default  initial-
  ized (_dcl.init_).  ]

15A  member  template  of a class template may be explicitly specialized
  for a given implicit instantiation of the class template, even if  the
  member  template  is  defined  in  the  class template definition.  An
  explicit specialization of a member template is  specified  using  the
  template  specialization syntax.  Default function arguments shall not
  be supplied in such declarations.  [Example:
          template<class T> struct A {
                  void f(T);
                  template<class X> void g(T,X);
                  void h(T) { }
          };

          // specialization
          template<> void A<int>::f(int);

          // out of class member template definition
          template<class T> template<class X> void A<T>::g(T,X) { }
          // member template partial specialization
          template<> template<class X> void A<int>::g(int,X);

          // member template specialization
          template<> template<>
                  void A<int>::g(int,char);        // X deduced as char
          template<> template<>
                  void A<int>::g<char>(int,char);  // X specified as char

          // member specialization even if defined in class definition
          template<> void A<int>::h(int) { }
   --end example]

16A member template of an explicitly specialized class is not be implic-
  itly  instantiated  from  the  general  template.  Instead, the member

  template shall itself be explicitly specialized.  [Example:
          template<class T> struct A {
                  void f(T) { /* ... */ }
          };

          template<> struct A<int> {
                  void f(int);
          };
          void h()
          {
                  A<int> a;
                  a.f(16);  // A<int>::f must be defined somewhere
          }

          template<> void A<int>::f() { /* ... */ }
   --end example] The definition of an explicitly specialized  class  is
  unrelated  to  the definition of a generated specialization.  That is,
  its members need not have the same names, types, etc. as  the  members
  of  the  a  generated  specialization.   Definitions  of members of an
  explicitly specialized class are defined in the same manner as members
  of normal classes, and not using the explicit specialization syntax.

17An  explicit specialization declaration shall not be a friend declara-
  tion.

  14.8  Function template specializations                [temp.fct.spec]

1 A function instantiated from a function template is called a  function
  template  specialization;  so is an explicit specialization of a func-
  tion template.  Template arguments can either be explicitly  specified
  in a call or be deduced (_temp.deduct_) from the function arguments.

2 Each  function  template instantiated from a template has its own copy
  of any static variable.  [Example:
          template<class T> f(T* p)
          {
                  static T s;
                  // ...
          };

          void g(int a, char* b)
          {
                  f(&a);  // call f<int>(int*)
                  f(&b);  // call f<char*>(char**)
          }
  Here  f<int>(int*)  has  a  static  variable  s  of   type   int   and
  f<char*>(char**) has a static variable s of type char*.  ]

  14.8.1  Explicit template argument                 [temp.arg.explicit]
       specification

1 Template arguments can be specified in a call by qualifying the  func-
  tion  template  specialization  name by the list of template-arguments
  exactly as  template-arguments  are  specified  in  uses  of  a  class

  template specialization.  [Example:
          template<class T> void sort(Array<T>& v);
          void f(Array<dcomplex>& cv, Array<int>& ci)
          {
                  sort<dcomplex>(cv); // sort(Array<dcomplex>&)
                  sort<int>(ci);      // sort(Array<int>&)
          }
  and
          template<class U, class V> U convert(V v);

          void g(double d)
          {
                  int i = convert<int,double>(d);  // int convert(double)
                  char c = convert<char,double>(d); // char convert(double)
          }
   --end example]

2 Trailing  arguments that can be deduced (_temp.deduct_) may be omitted
  from the list of explicit template-arguments.  [Example:
          template<class X, class Y> X f(Y);
          void g()
          {
                  int i = f<int>(5.6); // Y is deduced to be double
                  int j = f(5.6);      // ill-formed: X cannot be deduced
          }
   --end example]

3 Implicit conversions (_conv_) will be performed on a function argument
  to bring it to the type of the corresponding function parameter if the
  parameter type is fixed by an explicit specification  of  a  template-
  argument.  [Example:
          template<class T> void f(T);

          class Complex {
                  // ...
                  Complex(double);
          };

          void g()
          {
                  f<Complex>(1); // ok, means f<Complex>(Complex(1))
          }
   --end example]

4 [Note:  because  the explicit template argument list follows the func-
  tion template name, and because conversion member  function  templates
  and  constructor  member function templates are called without using a
  function name, there is no way to provide an explicit  template  argu-
  ment list for these function templates.  ]

  14.8.2  Template argument deduction                      [temp.deduct]

1 Template  arguments that can be deduced from the function arguments of
  a call need not be explicitly specified.  [Example:
          void f(Array<dcomplex>& cv, Array<int>& ci)
          {
                  sort(cv);   // call sort(Array<dcomplex>&)
                  sort(ci);   // call sort(Array<int>&)
          }
  and
          void g(double d)
          {
                  int i = convert<int>(d);   // call convert<int,double>(double)
                  int c = convert<char>(d);  // call convert<char,double>(double)
          }
   --end example] [Note: if a template-parameter is only used to  repre-
  sent a function template return type, its corresponding template-argu-
  ment cannot be deduced and the template-argument  must  be  explicitly
  specified.  ]

2 Type deduction is done for each function template argument that is not
  explicitly specified.  The type of the parameter of the function  tem-
  plate  (call  it P) is compared to the type of the corresponding argu-
  ment of the call (call it A), and an attempt is made to  find  a  type
  for  the  template type argument, a template for the template template
  argument or a value for the template non-type argument, that will make
  P  after  substitution  of  the  deduced  type or value (call that the
  deduced A) compatible with the call argument.  Type deduction is  done
  independently  for  each parameter/argument pair, and the deduced tem-
  plate argument types, templates and values are then combined.  If type
  deduction  cannot  be  done for any parameter/argument pair, or if for
  any parameter/argument pair the deduction leads to more than one  pos-
  sible  set  of  deduced  types,  templates  or values, or if different
  parameter/argument pairs yield different deduced types,  templates  or
  values  for  a  given  template  argument, or if any template argument
  remains neither deduced nor explicitly  specified,  template  argument
  deduction fails.

3 If P is not a reference type:

  --if  A  is  an array type, the pointer type produced by the array-to-
    pointer standard conversion (_conv.array_) is used in place of A for
    type deduction; otherwise,

  --if  A is a function type, the pointer type produced by the function-
    to-pointer standard conversion (_conv.func_) is used in place  of  A
    for type deduction; otherwise,

  --if A is a cv-qualified type, the top level cv-qualifiers of A's type
    are ignored for type deduction.

  If P is a cv-qualified type, the top level cv-qualifiers of  P's  type
  are  ignored  for  type deduction.  If P is a reference type, the type
  referred to by P is used in place of P for type deduction.

4 In general, the deduction process attempts to find  template  argument
  values  that  will make the deduced A identical to A (after the type A
  is transformed as described above).  However, there  are  three  cases
  that allow a difference:

  --If the original P is a reference type, the deduced A (i.e., the type
    referred to by the reference) can be more cv-qualified than A.

  --If P is a pointer or pointer  to  member  type,  A  can  be  another
    pointer  or  pointer  to  member  type  that can be converted to the
    deduced A via a qualification conversion (_conv.qual_).

  --If P is a class, and P has the form  class-template-name<arguments>,
    A  can  be  a  derived  class of the deduced A.  Likewise, if P is a
    pointer to a class of the form class-template-name<arguments>, A can
    be a pointer to a derived class pointed to by the deduced A.

  These  alternatives  are  considered  only if type deduction cannot be
  done otherwise.  If they yield more than one possible deduced  A,  the
  type  deduction fails.  When deducing arguments in the context of tak-
  ing the address of an overloaded function (_over.over_), these inexact
  deductions are not considered.

5 [Example:  here  is  an  example in which different parameter/argument
  pairs produce inconsistent template argument deductions:
          template<class T> void f(T x, T y) { /* ... */ }
          struct A { /* ... */ };
          struct B : A { /* ... */ };
          int g(A a, B b)
          {
                  f(a,b);  // error: T could be A or B
                  f(b,a);  // error: T could be A or B
                  f(a,a);  // ok: T is A
                  f(b,b);  // ok: T is B
          }

6 Here is an example where two template arguments  are  deduced  from  a
  single  function  parameter/argument pair.  This can lead to conflicts
  that cause type deduction to fail:
          template <class T, class U> void f(  T (*)( T, U, U )  );

          int g1( int, float, float);
          char g2( int, float, float);
          int g3( int, char, float);

          void r()
          {

                  f(g1);          // ok: T is int and U is float
                  f(g2);          // error: T could be char or int
                  f(g3);          // error: U could be char or float
          }

7 Here is an example where a qualification  conversion  applies  between
  the  argument type on the function call and the deduced template argu-
  ment type:
          template<class T> void f(const T*) {}
          int *p;
          void s()
          {
                  f(p);  // f(const int *)
          }

8 Here is an example where the template argument is used to  instantiate
  a derived class type of the corresponding function parameter type:
          template <class T> struct B { };
          template <class T> struct D : public B<T> {};
          struct D2 : public B<int> {};
          template <class T> void f(B<T>&){}
          void t()
          {
                  D<int> d;
                  D2     d2;
                  f(d);  // calls f(B<int>&)
                  f(d2); // calls f(B<int>&)
          }
   --end example]

9 A  template type argument T, a template template argument TT or a tem-
  plate non-type argument i can be deduced if P and A have  one  of  the
  following forms:
          T
          cv-list T
          T*
          T&
          T[integer-constant]
          class-template-name<T>
          type(*)(T)
          T(*)()
          T(*)(T)
          type T::*
          T type::*
          T (type::*)()
          type (T::*)()
          type (type::*)(T)
          type[i]
          class-template-name<i>
          TT<T>
          TT<i>
          TT<>
  where  (T)  represents argument lists where at least one argument type
  contains a T, and () represents argument lists where no parameter con-
  tains a T.  Similarly, <T> represents template argument lists where at
  least one argument contains a  T,  <i>  represents  template  argument
  lists where at least one argument contains an i and <> represents tem-
  plate argument lists where no argument contains a T or an i.

10In a type which contains a  nested-name-specifier,  template  argument
  values  cannot  be  deduced  for  template  parameters used within the
  nested-name-specifier.  [Example:
          template<int i, typename T>
          T deduce(A<T>::X x,     // T is not deduced here
                   T       t,     // but T is deduced here
                   B<i>::Y y);    // i is not deduced here
          A<int> a;
          B<77>  b;
          int    x = deduce<77>(a.xm, 62, y.ym);
          // T is deduced to be int, a.xm must be convertible to
          // A<int>::X
          // i is explicitly specified to be 77, y.ym must be convertible
          // to B<77>::Y
   --end example] When a template parameter is used in this context,  an
  argument  value  that  has  been explicitly specified, or deduced from
  other arguments is used.  If the value cannot  be  deduced  elsewhere,
  and  is  not explicitly specified, the program is ill-formed.  Conver-
  sions (_conv_) will be performed on a function  argument  that  corre-
  sponds with a function parameter that contains only non-deducible tem-
  plate  parameters  and  explicitly   specified   template   parameters
  (_temp.arg.explicit_).   These  forms can be used in the same way as T
  is for further composition of types.  [Example:
          X<int> (*)(char[6])
  is of the form
          class-template-name<T> (*)(type[i])
  which is a variant of
          type (*)(T)
  where type is X<int> and T is char[6].  ]

11Template arguments cannot be deduced from function arguments involving
  constructs other than the ones specified above.

12A template type argument cannot be deduced from the type of a non-type
  template-argument.  [Example:
          template<class T, T i> void f(double a[10][i]);
          int v[10][20];
          f(v); // error: argument for template-parameter T cannot be deduced
   --end example]

13[Note: except for reference and pointer types, a major array bound  is
  not  part  of  a function parameter type and cannot be deduced from an
  argument:
          template<int i> void f1(int a[10][i]);
          template<int i> void f2(int a[i][20]);
          template<int i> void f3(int (&a)[i][20]);

          void g()
          {
                  int v[10][20];
                  f1(v);     // ok: i deduced to be 20
                  f1<20>(v); // ok
                  f2(v);     // error: cannot deduce template-argument i
                  f2<10>(v); // ok
                  f3(v);     // ok: i deduced to be 10
          }
   --end note]

14If, in the declaration of a function template  with  a  non-type  tem-
  plate-parameter, the non-type template-parameter is used in an expres-
  sion in the function parameter-list, the corresponding  template-argu-
  ment shall always be explicitly specified because type deduction would
  otherwise always fail for such a template-argument.  [Example:
          template<int i> class A { /* ... */ };
          template<short s> void g(A<s+1>);
          void k() {
            A<1> a;
            g(a);       // error: deduction fails for expression s+1
            g<0>(a);    // ok
          }
   --end example]

15If, in the declaration of a function template  with  a  non-type  tem-
  plate-parameter, the non-type template-parameter is used in an expres-
  sion in the function parameter-list and,  if  the  corresponding  tem-
  plate-argument  is deduced, the template-argument type shall match the
  type of the template-parameter exactly, except that  a  template-argu-
  ment deduced from an array bound may be of any integral type.5) [Exam-
  ple:
          template<int i> class A { /* ... */ };
          template<short s> void f(A<s>);
          void k1() {
            A<1> a;
            f(a);       // error: deduction fails for conversion from int to short
            f<1>(a);    // ok
          }
          template<const short cs> class B { };
          template<short s> void h(B<s>);
          void k2() {
            B<1> b;
            g(b);       // ok: cv-qualifiers are ignored on template parameter types
          }
   --end example]

16A template-argument can be deduced  from  a  pointer  to  function  or
  pointer to member function argument if the set of overloaded functions
  _________________________
  5)  Although the template-argument corresponding to a template-parame-
  ter of type bool may be deduced from an  array  bound,  the  resulting
  value will always be true because the array bound will be non-zero.

  does  not contain function templates and at most one of a set of over-
  loaded functions provides a unique match.  [Example:
          template<class T> void f(void(*)(T,int));
          template<class T> void foo(T,int);
          void g(int,int);
          void g(char,int);
          void h(int,int,int);
          void h(char,int);
          int m()
          {
                  f(&g);    // error: ambiguous
                  f(&h);    // ok: void h(char,int) is a unique match
                  f(&foo);  // error: type deduction fails because foo is a template
          }
   --end example]

17If function template-arguments are explicitly  specified  in  a  call,
  they  shall  be  specified in declaration order of their corresponding
  template-parameters.  Trailing arguments can be left out of a list  of
  explicit template-arguments.  [Example:
  template<class X, class Y, class Z> X f(Y,Z);
          void g()
          {
                  f<int,char*,double>("aa",3.0);
                  f<int,char*>("aa",3.0); // Z is deduced to be double
                  f<int>("aa",3.0);       // Y is deduced to be char*, and
                                          // Z is deduced to be double
                  f("aa",3.0);            // error: X cannot be deduced
          }
   --end example]

18A  template  type-parameter cannot be deduced from the type of a func-
  tion default argument.  [Example:
          template <class T> void f(T = 5, T = 7);
          void g()
          {
                  f(1);     // ok: call f<int>(1,7)
                  f();      // error: cannot deduce T
                  f<int>(); // ok: call f<int>(5,7)
          }
   --end example]

19The template-argument corresponding to a  template  template-parameter
  is  deduced from the type of the template-argument of a class template
  specialization used in the argument list of a function  call.   [Exam-
  ple:
          template <template X<class T> > struct A { };
          template <template X<class T> > void f(A<X>) { }
          template<class T> struct B { };
          A<B> ab;
          f(ab); // calls f(A<B>)
   --end example]

20If trailing template-arguments are left unspecified in a function tem-
  plate    explicit    instantiation    or    explicit    specialization
  (_temp.explicit_,  _temp.expl.spec_),  the  template  arguments can be
  deduced from the function parameters according to the rules  specified
  in this subclause.  [Note: a default template-argument cannot be spec-
  ified in a function  template  declaration  or  definition;  therefore
  default  template-arguments cannot be used to influence template argu-
  ment deduction.  ]

  14.8.3  Overload resolution                                [temp.over]

1 A function template can be overloaded either by  (non-template)  func-
  tions  of  its name or by (other) function templates of the same name.
  When a call to that name is written (explicitly, or  implicitly  using
  the operator notation), template argument deduction (_temp.deduct_) is
  performed for each function template to  find  the  template  argument
  values  (if  any)  that  can  be  used  with that function template to
  instantiate a function template specialization  that  can  be  invoked
  with  the call arguments.  For each function template, if the argument
  deduction succeeds, the deduced template-arguments are used to instan-
  tiate  a single function template specialization which is added to the
  candidate functions set to be used in overload resolution.  If, for  a
  given function template, argument deduction fails, no such function is
  added to the set of candidate functions for that template.   The  com-
  plete  set  of candidate functions includes all the function templates
  instantiated in this way and all of the non-template overloaded  func-
  tions  of  the  same  name.  The function template specializations are
  treated like any other functions in the remainder of overload  resolu-
  tion, except as explicitly noted.6)

2 [Example:
          template<class T> T max(T a, T b) { return a>b?a:b; };

          void f(int a, int b, char c, char d)
          {
                  int m1 = max(a,b);  // max(int a, int b)
                  char m2 = max(c,d); // max(char a, char b)
                  int m3 = max(a,c);  // error: cannot generate max(int,char)
          }

3 Adding
          int max(int,int);
  to  the  example  above  would  resolve the third call, by providing a
  _________________________
  6) The parameters of function template specializations contain no tem-
  plate parameter types.  The set of conversions allowed on deduced  ar-
  guments  is  limited,  because the argument deduction process produces
  function templates with parameters that either match  the  call  argu-
  ments  exactly  or  differ only in ways that can be bridged by the al-
  lowed limited conversions.  Non-deduced arguments allow the full range
  of  conversions.  Note also that _over.match.best_ implies that a non-
  teplate function will be given preference over a  template  instantia-
  tion with the same parameter types.

  function that could be called for max(a,c) after  using  the  standard
  conversion of char to int for c.

4 Here  is  an  example  involving  conversions  on  a function argument
  involved in template-argument deduction:
          template<class T> struct B { /* ... */ };
          template<class T> struct D : public B<T> { /* ... */ };
          template<class T> void f(B<T>&);
          void g(B<int>& bi, D<int>& di)
          {
                  f(bi);  // f(bi)
                  f(di);  // f( (B<int>&)di )
          }

5 Here is an example involving conversions on a  function  argument  not
  involved in template-parameter deduction:
          template<class T> void f(T*,int);  // #1
          template<class T> void f(T,char);  // #2
          void h(int* pi, int i, char c)
          {
                  f(pi,i);  // #1: f<int>(pi,i)
                  f(pi,c);  // #2: f<int*>(pi,c)

                  f(i,c);   // #2: f<int>(i,c);
                  f(i,i);   // #2: f<int>(i,char(i))
          }
   --end example]

6 Only  the signature of a function template specialization is needed to
  enter the specialization in a set of candidate  functions.   Therefore
  only the function template declaration is needed to resolve a call for
  which a template specialization is a candidate.  [Example:
          template<class T> void f(T);    // declaration

          void g()
          {
                  f("Annemarie"); // call of f<const char*>
          }
  The call of f is well-formed even if the template f is  only  declared
  and  not  defined  at the point of the call.  The program will be ill-
  formed unless a specialization for f<const char*>,  either  implicitly
  or explicitly generated, is present in some translation unit.  ]