Specifies a script to eval when validateCommand returns 0.
Setting it to <undef> disables this feature (the default). The best use
of this option is to set it to bell. See Validation
below for more information.
If this option is specified, then the true contents of the entry
are not displayed in the window.
Instead, each character in the entry's value will be displayed as
the first character in the value of this option, such as ``*''.
This is useful, for example, if the entry is to be used to enter
If characters in the entry are selected and copied elsewhere, the
information copied will be what is displayed, not the true contents
of the entry.
Specifies one of two states for the entry: normal or disabled.
If the entry is disabled then the value may not be changed using widget
methods and no insertion cursor will be displayed, even if the input focus is
in the widget.
Specifies the mode in which validation should operate: none,
focus, focusin, focusout, key, or all.
It defaults to none. When you want validation, you must explicitly
state which mode you wish to use. See Validation below for more.
Specifies a script to eval when you want to validate the input into
the entry widget. Setting it to undef disables this feature (the default).
This command must return a valid boolean value. If it returns 0 (or
the valid boolean equivalent) then it means you reject the new edition
and it will not occur and the invalidCommand will be evaluated if it
is set. If it returns 1, then the new edition occurs.
See Validation below for more information.
Specifies an integer value indicating the desired width of the entry window,
in average-size characters of the widget's font.
If the value is less than or equal to zero, the widget picks a
size just large enough to hold its current text.
The Entry method creates a new window (given by the
$entry argument) and makes it into an entry widget.
Additional options, described above, may be specified on the
command line or in the option database
to configure aspects of the entry such as its colors, font,
and relief. The entry command returns its
$entry argument. At the time this command is invoked,
there must not exist a window named $entry, but
$entry's parent must exist.
An entry is a widget that displays a one-line text string and
allows that string to be edited using methods described below, which
are typically bound to keystrokes and mouse actions.
When first created, an entry's string is empty.
A portion of the entry may be selected as described below.
If an entry is exporting its selection (see the exportSelection
option), then it will observe the standard X11 protocols for handling the
selection; entry selections are available as type STRING.
Entries also observe the standard Tk rules for dealing with the
input focus. When an entry has the input focus it displays an
insertion cursor to indicate where new characters will be
Entries are capable of displaying strings that are too long to
fit entirely within the widget's window. In this case, only a
portion of the string will be displayed; methods described below
may be used to change the view in the window. Entries use
the standard xScrollCommand mechanism for interacting with
scrollbars (see the description of the -xscrollcommand option
for details). They also support scanning, as described below.
Validation of entry widgets is derived from part of the patch written by
firstname.lastname@example.org. This works by setting the validateCommand
option to a callback which will be evaluated according to the validate
option as follows:
In general, the textVariable and validateCommand can be
dangerous to mix. If you try set the textVariable
to something that the validateCommand will not accept it will
be set back to the value of the entry widget.
Using the textVariable for read-only purposes will never cause problems.
The validateCommand will turn itself off by setting
validate to none when an error occurs, for example
when the validateCommand or invalidCommand encounters
an error in its script while evaluating, or
validateCommand does not return a valid boolean value.
With the perl/Tk version validate option is supposed to be
``suspended'' while executing the validateCommand or the invalidCommand.
This is experimental but in theory either callback can ``correct'' the
value of the widget, and override the proposed change. (validateCommand
should still return false to inhibit the change from happening when
The Entry method creates a widget object.
This object supports the configure and cget methods
described in the Tk::options manpage which can be used to enquire and
modify the options described above.
The widget also inherits all the methods provided by the generic
Many of the additional methods for entries take one or more indices as
arguments. An index specifies a particular character in the entry's
string, in any of the following ways:
Returns a list of four numbers describing the bounding box of the
character given by index.
The first two elements of the list give the x and y coordinates of
the upper-left corner of the screen area covered by the character
(in pixels relative to the widget) and the last two elements give
the width and height of the character, in pixels.
The bounding box may refer to a region outside the visible area
of the window.
Query or modify the configuration options of the widget.
If no option is specified, returns a list describing all of
the available options for $entry (see the Tk::configure manpage for
information on the format of this list). If option is specified
with no value, then the command returns a list describing the
one named option (this list will be identical to the corresponding
sublist of the value returned if no option is specified). If
one or more option-value pairs are specified, then the command
modifies the given widget option(s) to have the given value(s); in
this case the command returns an empty string.
Option may have any of the values accepted by the entry
Delete one or more elements of the entry.
First is the index of the first character to delete, and
last is the index of the character just after the last
one to delete.
If last isn't specified it defaults to first+1,
i.e. a single character is deleted.
This method returns an empty string.
Records x and the current view in the entry widget; used in
conjunction with later scanDragto methods. Typically this
method is associated with a mouse button press in the widget. It
returns an empty string.
This method computes the difference between its x argument
and the x argument to the last scanMark method for
the widget. It then adjusts the view left or right by 10 times the
difference in x-coordinates. This method is typically associated
with mouse motion events in the widget, to produce the effect of
dragging the entry at high speed through the widget. The return
value is an empty string.
Locate the end of the selection nearest to the character given by
index, and adjust that end of the selection to be at index
(i.e including but not going beyond index). The other
end of the selection is made the anchor point for future
selectionTo methods. If the selection
isn't currently in the entry, then a new selection is created to
include the characters between index and the most recent
selection anchor point, inclusive.
Returns an empty string.
Sets the selection to include the characters starting with
the one indexed by start and ending with the one just
If end refers to the same character as start or an
earlier one, then the entry's selection is cleared.
If index is before the anchor point, set the selection
to the characters from index up to but not including
the anchor point.
If index is the same as the anchor point, do nothing.
If index is after the anchor point, set the selection
to the characters from the anchor point up to but not including
The anchor point is determined by the most recent selectionFrom
or selectionAdjust method in this widget.
If the selection isn't in this widget then a new selection is
created using the most recent anchor point specified for the widget.
Returns an empty string.
This command is used to query and change the horizontal position of the
text in the widget's window. It can take any of the following
Returns a list containing two elements.
Each element is a real fraction between 0 and 1; together they describe
the horizontal span that is visible in the window.
For example, if the first element is .2 and the second element is .7,
20% of the entry's text is off-screen to the left, the middle 50% is visible
in the window, and 30% of the text is off-screen to the right.
These are the same values passed to scrollbars via the -xscrollcommand
Adjusts the view in the window so that the character given by index
is displayed at the left edge of the window.
This method shifts the view in the window left or right according to
number and what.
Number must be an integer.
What must be either units or pages or an abbreviation
of one of these.
If what is units, the view adjusts left or right by
number average-width characters on the display; if it is
pages then the view adjusts by number screenfuls.
If number is negative then characters farther to the left
become visible; if it is positive then characters farther to the right
Tk automatically creates class bindings for entries that give them
the following default behavior.
In the descriptions below, ``word'' refers to a contiguous group
of letters, digits, or ``_'' characters, or any single character
other than these.
Clicking mouse button 1 positions the insertion cursor
just before the character underneath the mouse cursor, sets the
input focus to this widget, and clears any selection in the widget.
Dragging with mouse button 1 strokes out a selection between
the insertion cursor and the character under the mouse.
Double-clicking with mouse button 1 selects the word under the mouse
and positions the insertion cursor at the beginning of the word.
Dragging after a double click will stroke out a selection consisting
of whole words.
The ends of the selection can be adjusted by dragging with mouse
button 1 while the Shift key is down; this will adjust the end
of the selection that was nearest to the mouse cursor when button
1 was pressed.
If the button is double-clicked before dragging then the selection
will be adjusted in units of whole words.
The view in the entry can be adjusted by dragging with mouse button 2.
If mouse button 2 is clicked without moving the mouse, the selection
is copied into the entry at the position of the mouse cursor.
If the mouse is dragged out of the entry on the left or right sides
while button 1 is pressed, the entry will automatically scroll to
make more text visible (if there is more text off-screen on the side
where the mouse left the window).
The Left and Right keys move the insertion cursor one character to the
left or right; they also clear any selection in the entry and set
the selection anchor.
If Left or Right is typed with the Shift key down, then the insertion
cursor moves and the selection is extended to include the new character.
Control-Left and Control-Right move the insertion cursor by words, and
Control-Shift-Left and Control-Shift-Right move the insertion cursor
by words and also extend the selection.
Control-b and Control-f behave the same as Left and Right, respectively.
Meta-b and Meta-f behave the same as Control-Left and Control-Right,
The Home key, or Control-a, will move the insertion cursor to the
beginning of the entry and clear any selection in the entry.
Shift-Home moves the insertion cursor to the beginning of the entry
and also extends the selection to that point.
The Select key and Control-Space set the selection anchor to the position
of the insertion cursor. They don't affect the current selection.
Shift-Select and Control-Shift-Space adjust the selection to the
current position of the insertion cursor, selecting from the anchor
to the insertion cursor if there was not any selection previously.
The F20 key (labelled Cut on many Sun workstations) or Control-w
copies the selection in the widget to the clipboard and deletes
If there is no selection in the widget then these keys have no effect.
Control-t reverses the order of the two characters to the right of
the insertion cursor.
If the entry is disabled using the -state option, then the entry's
view can still be adjusted and text in the entry can still be selected,
but no insertion cursor will be displayed and no text modifications will
The behavior of entries can be changed by defining new bindings for
individual widgets or by redefining the class bindings.