The first, and most obvious, use is find's ability to locate old, big, or unused files whose locations you've forgotten. However, what may be find's most fundamentally important characteristic is its ability to travel down subdirectories.
Normally the shell provides the argument list to a command. That is, UNIX programs are frequently given filenames and not directory names. Only a few programs can be given a directory name and march down the directory searching for subdirectories. The programs find, tar, du, and diff do this. Some versions of chmod, chgrp, ls, rm, and cp will, but only if a -r or -R option is specified.
In general, most commands do not understand directory structures, and rely on the shell to expand to directory names. That is, to delete all files whose names end with a .o in a group of directories, you could type:
rm *.o */*.o */*/*.o
Not only is this tedious to type, it may not find all of the files
you are searching for.
The shell has certain blind spots.
It will not match files in directories whose names start with a dot.
And, if any files match
they would not be deleted.
is typing the above and getting the error
This means the shell would expand too many arguments from the wildcards
find is the answer to these problems.
A simple example of find is using it to print the names of all the files in the directory and all subdirectories. This is done with the simple command:
find . -print
The first arguments to
are directory and file pathnames - in that example,
and tell find what to do once it finds a file.
These are the search operators.
In this case, the filename is printed.
You can use the
supported by the C shell, as well as
particular paths. For example:
find ~ ~barnett /usr/local -print
And if you have a very slow day, you can type:
find / -print
which will list every file on the system.
[This command is okay on single-user workstations with their own disks.
It can tie up disks on multiuser systems enough to make users think of
If you really need that list and your system has
find '/*' instead. -JP ]
find sends its output to standard output, so once you've "found" a list of filenames, you can pass them to other commands. One way to use this is with
The find command is executed, and its output replaces the backquoted string. ls sees the output of find, and doesn't even know find was used.
|Warning!||An alternate method uses the command. xargs and find work together beautifully. xargs executes its arguments as commands and reads standard input to specify arguments to that command. xargs knows the maximum number of arguments each command line can handle and does not exceed that limit. While the command:|
ls -ld `find / -print`
might generate an error when the command line is too large, the equivalent command using xargs will never generate that error:
find / -print | xargs ls -ld