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UNIX in a Nutshell: System V Edition

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The UNIX Shell: An Overview
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3.4 Common Features

The table below is a sampling of features that are common to the Bourne, Korn, and C shells. Note that the Korn shell is an enhanced version of the Bourne shell; therefore, the Korn shell includes all features of the Bourne shell, plus some others. The commands bg, fg, jobs, stop, and suspend are available only on systems that support job control.

Symbol/Meaning/Action
Command
>Redirect output.
>>Append to file.
<Redirect input.
<<"Here" document (redirect input).
|Pipe output.
&Run process in background.
;Separate commands on same line.
*Match any character(s) in filename.
?Match single character in filename.
[ ]Match any characters enclosed.
( )Execute in subshell.
` `Substitute output of enclosed command.
" "Partial quote (allows variable and command expansion).
' 'Full quote (no expansion).
\Quote following character.
$varUse value for variable.
$$Process id.
$0Command name.
$nnth argument (0<n<9).
$*All arguments as a simple word.
#Begin comment.
bgBackground execution.
breakBreak from loop statements.
cdChange directories
continueResume a program loop.
echoDisplay output.
evalEvaluate arguments.
execExecute a new shell.
fgForeground execution.
jobsShow active jobs.
killTerminate running jobs.
newgrpChange to a new group.
shiftShift positional parameters.
stopSuspend a background job.
suspendSuspend a foreground job.
timeTime a command.
umaskSet or list file permissions.
unsetErase variable or function definitions.
waitWait for a background job to finish.


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