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UNIX in a Nutshell: System V Edition

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UNIX Commands
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ls [options] [names]

If no names are given, list the files in the current directory. With one or more names, list files contained in a directory name or that match a file name. names can include filename metacharacters. The options let you display a variety of information in different formats. The most useful options include -F, -R, -l, and -s. Some options don't make sense together; e.g., -u and -c.



List all files, including the normally hidden . files.


Show nonprinting characters in octal.


List files by creation/modification time.


List files in columns (the default format).


List only the directory name, not its contents.


Interpret each name as a directory (files are ignored).


Flag filenames by appending / to directories, * to executable files, and @ to symbolic links. @ to symbolic links, and = to sockets.


Like -l, but omit owner name (show group). Add group name to -l listing.


List the inode for each file.


Long format listing (includes permissions, owner, size, modification time, etc.).


List the file or directory referenced by a symbolic link rather than the link itself.


Merge the list into a comma-separated series of names.


Like -l, but use GID and UID numbers instead of owner and group names.


Like -l, but omit group name (show owner).


Mark directories by appending / to them.


Show nonprinting characters as ?.


List files in reverse order (by name or by time).


Recursively list subdirectories as well as current directory.


Print size of the files in blocks. in kilobytes.


List files according to modification time (newest first).


List files according to the file access time.


List files in rows going across the screen.


Print one entry per line of output.


List all files in the current directory and their sizes; use multiple columns and mark special files:

ls -asCF

List the status of directories /bin and /etc:

ls -ld /bin /etc

List C source files in the current directory, the oldest first:

ls -rt *.c

Count the files in the current directory:

ls | wc -l

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