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UNIX in a Nutshell: System V Edition

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UNIX Commands
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grep

grep [options] regexp [files]

Search one or more files for lines that match a regular expression regexp. Regular expressions are described in Section 6. Exit status is 0 if any lines match, 1 if not, and 2 for errors. See also egrep and fgrep.

Options

-b

Precede each line with its block number.

-c

Print only a count of matched lines.

-h

Print matched lines but not filenames (inverse of -l).

-i

Ignore uppercase and lowercase distinctions.

-l

List filenames but not matched lines.

-n

Print lines and their line numbers.

-s

Suppress error messages for nonexistent or unreadable files.

-s

Silent mode: print only error messages, and return the exit status.

-v

Print all lines that don't match regexp.

-w

Restrict regexp to matching a whole word (like using < and >> in vi).

Examples

List the number of users who use the C shell:

grep -c /bin/csh /etc/passwd

List header files that have at least one #include directive:

grep -l '^#include' /usr/include/*

List files that don't contain pattern:

grep -c pattern files | grep :0


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