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What's on the CD-ROM Disc

Installing the Software

Most of the software included with this CD-ROM is for the UNIX Operating System. Since there are several flavors of UNIX for every possible hardware configuration known to mankind, a simple installation program is not possible. If you are new to UNIX, you should contact the person responsible for installing software on your system to install your selected programs. This might be a support person or a system administrator. You will find a bag of M&Ms and a cola will probably get the job done faster.

If you are responsible for installing software on your system, this CD-ROM can be mounted with the mount command discussed in Chapter 40, "Device Administration." Please read the installation and configuration instructions that come with each package for further detail on how to install and configure the software for your particular operating system and hardware. Have fun!

Contents of the CD-ROM

Unless the authors of the software are noted at the end of the description, the programs listed here are distributed under the Free Software Foundation's General Public License. This license is in the file COPYING on the CD-ROM.

The CD-ROM is an ISO-9660 disc, which means that full UNIX file and directory names cannot be used. If you have the Rock Ridge CD-ROM extensions on your system, the YMTRANS.TBL files (included for most of the software) allow your system to automatically expand the ISO-9660 names to full UNIX names.

The listings follow this format:

program name (location on disc)  ()-description

acm-4.5 (ACM_4_5)—acm is a LAN-oriented, multiplayer aerial combat simulation. Players engage in air-to-air combat against one another using heat-seeking missiles and cannons.

autoconf-1.11 (AUTOCONF)—autoconf is an extensible package of m4 macros that creates a noninteractive configuration script for a package from a template file. The template file lists the operating system features that the package can use, in the form of m4 macro calls, and can also contain arbitrary shell commands. Autoconf requires GNU m4.

bash-1.13.5 (BASH_1_1)—BASH (the Bourne Again SHell) is a Posix-compatible shell with full Bourne shell ('sh') syntax and some C-shell commands. BASH supports emacs-style command-line editing, job control, functions, and online help. Instructions for compiling BASH may be found in the file README.

binutils-2.4 (BINUTILS)—This is a beta release of a completely rewritten binutils distribution. These programs have been tested on various architectures. Most recently tested are sun3 and sun4s running sunos4, as well as Sony News running newsos3. This release contains the following programs: ar, demangle, ld (the linker), nm, objcopy, objdump, ranlib, size, strip, and gprof. BFD (the Binary File Descripter) library is in the subdirectory bfd and is built along with GDB (which uses bfd). See the README file for further instructions on where to look for building the various utilities.

bison-1.22 (BISON_1_)—Bison is an upwardly compatible replacement for the parser generator yacc, with more features. The file README gives instructions for compiling Bison; the files bison.1 (a man page) and bison.texinfo (a GNU Texinfo file) give instructions for using it.

calc-2.02c (CALC_2_0)—Calc is an extensible, advanced desk calculator and mathematical tool that runs as part of GNU Emacs. You can use Calc as a simple calculator, but it provides additional features including choice of algebraic or RPN (stack-based) entry, logarithmic functions, trigonometric and financial functions, arbitrary precision, complex numbers, vectors, matrices, dates, times, infinities, sets, algebraic simplification, differentiation, and integration. Instructions for installing Calc for Emacs are in the README file.

clisp-1994.01.08 (CLISP_19)—CLISP is a Common Lisp implementation by Bruno Haible and Michael Stoll. It mostly conforms to the version of Common Lisp described by Common LISP: The Language (1st edition) and supports CLOS as well. CLISP runs on many microcomputers and needs only 1.5 MB of memory. CLISP includes an interpreter, a compiler, and (for some machines) a screen editor.

cperf-2.1a (CPERF_2_)—This is a program to generate minimally perfect hash functions for sets of keywords. Programs that must recognize a set of keywords may also benefit from using this program. Instructions for compiling cperf may be found in the file README.

cvs-1.3 (CVS_1_3)—CVS is a collection of programs that provide for software release and revision control functions. CVS is designed to work on top of RCS version 4. It will parse older RCS formats, but cannot use any of its fancier features without RCS branch support. The file README contains more information about CVS.

diffutils-2.6 (DIFFUTIL)—diff compares files showing line-by-line changes in several flexible formats. GNU diff is much faster than the traditional UNIX versions. This distribution includes diff, diff3, sdiff, and cmp. Instructions for compiling these are in the README file.

dld-3.2.3 (DLD_3_2_)—Dld is a library package of C functions that performs dynamic link editing. Programs that use dld can add compiled object code to or remove such code from a process anytime during its execution. Dld works on VAX, Sun 3, SPARCstation, Sequent Symmetry, and Atari ST machines.

doschk-1.1 (DOSCHK_1)—This program is intended as a utility to help software developers ensure that their source filenames are distinguishable on MS-DOS and 14-character SYSV platforms.

ecc-1.2.1 (ECC_1_2_)—ECC is a Reed-Solomon error correction checking program. It is capable of correcting three byte errors in a block of 255 bytes, and is capable of detecting more severe errors.

emacs-18.59 (EMACS_18)—GNU emacs is an extensible, customizable full-screen editor. Read the README and INSTALL files for a full description of the parts of GNU emacs, and the steps needed to install it. This distribution includes the complete GNU emacs Manual.

emacs-19.24 (EMACS_19)—GNU emacs is an extensible, customizable full-screen editor. Read the README and INSTALL files for a full description of the parts of GNU emacs, and the steps needed to install it. This distribution includes the complete GNU emacs Manual.

es-0.84 (ES_0_84)—This is an extensible shell based on rc but with more features including first class functions, lexical scope, an exception system, and rich return values (functions can return values other than just numbers).

f2c-1994.05.10 (F2C_1994)—This is a Fortran-to-C converter program. Instructions for compiling it are in the src/README file.

fileutils-3.9 (FILEUTIL)—These are the GNU file-manipulation utilities. Instructions for compiling these utilities are in the file README. The fileutils package contains the following programs: chgrp, chmod, chown, cp, dd, df, dir, du, ginstall, ln, ls, mkdir, mkfifo, mknod, mv, rm, rmdir, touch, vdir.

find-3.8 (FIND_3_8)—This is a Posix-compliant implementation (with many extensions) of find, a program used for searching file systems for files that match certain criteria and performing operations (like showing the path) when they are found. Also included in this distribution are xargs and locate.

finger-1.37 (FINGER_1)—GNU finger is a utility program designed to allow users of UNIX hosts on the Internet network to get information about each other. Instructions for building finger itself are in the README file.

fontutils-0.6 (FONTUTIL)—These are the GNU font utilities. There are various programs for converting between various bitmaps and other graphical data formats, creating fonts using Ghostscript, and other such utilities. You will need GCC and GNU Make to compile these programs. For the programs that do online graphics, you will need an X11 server and the X11R4 or R5 libraries. Instructions for building the fontutils are in the README file.

gas-2.3 (GAS_2_3)—GAS is the GNU assembler. Version 2 has many changes over previous GAS releases. Most notable among the changes are the separation of host system, target CPU, and target file format (i.e. cross-assembling is much easier). Many CPU types and object file formats are now supported. Read the gas-2.3/gas/README file for instructions on building and using GAS.

gcc-2.5.8 (GCC_2_5_)—This is version 2 of GCC, the GNU C Compiler. In addition to supporting ANSI C, GCC Version 2 includes support for the C++ and Objective C languages. GCC extends the C language to support nested functions, non-local gotos, taking the address of program labels, and unnamed structures as function arguments (among other things). There are also many new warnings for frequent programming mistakes. GCC can be easily configured as a cross-compiler, running on one platform while generating code for another. A list of supported systems and instructions for compiling GCC are in the INSTALL file.

gcl-1.0 (GCL_1_0)—GNU Common Lisp (GCL) has a compiler and interpreter for Common Lisp. It is very portable and extremely efficient on a wide class of applications. It compares favorably in performance with commercial Lisps on several large theorem prover and symbolic algebra systems.

gdb-4.12 (GDB_4_12)—This is the GNU source-level debugger. A list of the machines supported as targets or hosts, as well as a list of new features, appears in gdb-4.12/gdb/NEWS. Instructions for compiling GDB are in the file gdb-4.12/gdb/README. BFD (the Binary File Descripter) library is in the subdirectory bfd and is built along with GDB (which uses it).

gdbm-1.7.3 (GDBM_1_7)—This is the beta-test version of the GNU DBM library. DBM is a set of library routines which implement a database using quick lookup by hashing. See the file README for further details.

ghost-2.6.1 (GHOST_2_)—This program is an interpreter for a language that is intended to be, and very nearly is, compatible with the PostScript language. It runs under X on UNIX and VMS systems, and also runs on MS-DOS machines. It will drive either displays or low-to-medium-resolution printers. Instructions for compiling Ghostscript are in the file README. Fonts for Ghostscript are in the directory ghost-2.6.1/fonts.

ghostview-1.5 (GHOSTVIE)—Ghostview allows you to view PostScript files on X11 displays. Ghostview handles the user interface details and calls the 'ghostscript' interpreter to render the image. Instructions for compiling Ghostview are in the README file.

glibc-1.08 (GLIBC_1_)—This directory contains a beta release of the GNU C Library. The library is ANSI C-1989 and POSIX 1003.1-1990 compliant and has most of the functions specified in POSIX 1003.2. It is upwardly compatible with the 4.4 BSD C library and includes many System V functions, plus GNU extensions. Version 1.08 adds support for Sun RPC, mmap and friends, and compatibility with several more traditional UNIX functions. See the file INSTALL for instructions on building the library.

gnats-3.2 (GNATS_3_)—GNATS (GNats: A Tracking System) is a bug-tracking system. It is based upon the paradigm of a central site or organization which receives problem reports and negotiates their resolution by electronic mail. Although it's been used primarily as a software bug-tracking system so far, it is sufficiently generalized so that it could be used for handling system administration issues, project management, or any number of other applications.

grep-2.0 (GREP_2_0)—This package contains version 2.0 of grep, egrep, and fgrep. They are similar to their UNIX counterparts, but are usually faster. Instructions for compiling them are in the file README.

groff-1.09 (GROFF_1_)—groff is a document formatting system, which includes drivers for Postscript, TeX dvi format, and typewriter-like devices, as well as implementations of eqn, nroff, pic, refer, tbl, troff, and the man, ms, and mm macros. groff's mm macro package is almost compatible with the DWB mm macros and has several extensions. Written in C++, these programs can be compiled with GNU C++ Version 2.5 or later.

gzip-1.2.4 (GZIP_1_2)—This is a new compression program (free of known patents) which the GNU Project is using instead of the traditional compress program. Gzip can uncompress LZW-compressed files but uses a different algorithm for compression, which generally yields smaller compressed files. This will be the standard compression program in the GNU system.

hp2xx-3.1.4 (???)—GNU hp2xx reads HP-GL files, decomposes all drawing commands into elementary vectors, and converts them into a variety of vector and raster output formats. It is also an HP-GL previewer.

indent-1.9.1 (INDENT_1)—This is the GNU modified version of the freely distributable indent program from BSD. The file indent.texinfo contains instructions on using indent.

ispell-3.1.04 (ISPELL_3)—Ispell is an interactive spell checker that finds unrecognized words and suggests "near misses" as replacements. Both system and user-maintained dictionaries can be used. Both a stand-alone and GNU Emacs interface are available.

libg++-2.5.3 (LIBG___2)—The GNU C++ library is an extensive collection of C++ forest classes, a new IOStream library for input/output routines, and support tools for use with G++. Among the classes supported are Obstacks, multiple-precision Integers and Rationals, Complex numbers, arbitrary length Strings, BitSets, and BitStrings. Instructions are in the file libg++-2.5.3/libg++/README.

m4-1.1 (M4_1_1)—m4 is a macro processor, in the sense that it copies its input to the output, expanding macros as it goes. Macros are either built-in or user-defined, and can take any number of arguments. Besides just doing macro expansion, m4 has built-in functions for including named files, running UNIX commands, doing integer arithmetic, manipulating text in various ways, recursion, etc. Instructions for building m4 are in the README file.

make-3.71 (MAKE_3_7)—This is GNU Make. GNU Make supports many more options and features than the UNIX make. Instructions for using GNU Make are in the file make.texinfo. See the file README for installation instructions.

mkisofs-1.01 (MKISOFS_)—mkisofs is a pre-mastering program to generate an ISO9660 file system. It takes a snapshot of a given directory tree, and generates a binary image which will correspond to an ISO9660 file system when written to a block device. mkisofs is also capable of generating the System Use Sharing Protocol records specified by the Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol. This is used to further describe the files in the ISO9660 file system to a UNIX host, and provides information such as longer filenames, uid/gid, Posix permissions, and block and character devices.

mtools-2.0.7 (MTOOLS_2)—Mtools is a public domain collection of programs to allow UNIX systems to read, write, and manipulate files on an MS-DOS file system (typically a diskette).

mule-1.1.4 (MULE_1_1)—Mule is a MULtilingual Enhancement to GNU Emacs 18. It can handle, not only ASCII characters (7 bits) and ISO Latin-1 (8 bits), but also Japanese, Chinese, Korean (16 bits) coded in the ISO2022 standard and its variants (e.g. EUC, Compound Text). For Chinese there is support for both GB and Big5. Thai (based on TIS620) and Vietnamese (based on VISCII and VSCII) are also supported.

netfax-3.2.1 (NETFAX_3)—This is a set of software which provides Group 3 fax transmission and reception services for a networked UNIX system. It requires a faxmodem which conforms to the new EIA-592 Asynchronous Facsimile DCE Control Standard, Service Class 2.

nihcl-3.0 (NIHCL_3_)—This is an object oriented program support class library with a portable collection of classes similar to those in Smalltalk-80. This library used to be known as OOPS (Object-Oriented Program Support). NIHCL does not presently work with G++ (GNU C++).

nvi-1.11 (NVI_1_11)—nvi is a free implementation of the vi/ex UNIX editor. It has most of the functionality of the original vi/ex, except open mode and the lisp option, which will be added. Enhancements over vi/ex include split screens with multiple buffers, ability to handle 8-bit data, infinite file and line lengths, tag stacks, infinite undo and extended regular expressions. It runs under BSD, Linux, NetBSD, FreeBSD, BSDI, AIX, HP-UX, DGUX, IRIX, PSF, PTX, Solaris, SunOS, Ultrix, and UNIXware and should port easily to many other systems.

oleo-1.5 (OLEO_1_5)—Oleo is a spreadsheet program (better for you than the more expensive spreadsheet). It supports X windows and character-based terminals, and can generate embedded PostScript renditions of spreadsheets. Keybindings should be familiar to Emacs users and are configurable by users. There is relatively little documentation for Oleo yet. The file USING contains what there is.

p2c-1.20 (P2C_1_20)—This is a Pascal to C conversion program, written by Dave Gillespie.

patch-2.1 (PATCH_2_)—patch will take a patch file containing any of the four forms of difference listing produced by the diff program and apply those differences to an original file, producing a patched version. Instructions for building patch are in the README file.

perl-4.036 (PERL_4_0)—This is version 4.036 of Larry Wall's perl programming language. Perl is intended as a faster replacement for sed, awk, and similar languages. The file README contains instructions for compiling perl.

rc-1.4 (RC_1_4)—rc is a shell which features a C-like syntax (much more so than csh) and far cleaner quoting rules than the C or Bourne shells. It's intended to be used interactively, but is great for writing scripts as well.

rcs- (RCS_5_6_)—This is the Revision Control System, a program to manage multiple versions of a software project. This program keeps the changes from one version to another rather than multiple copies of the entire file; this saves disk space. Instructions for compiling RCS are in the file README.

recode-3.3 (RECODE_3)—recode converts files between character sets and usages. When exact transliterations are not possible, it may get rid of the offending characters or fall back on approximations. This program recognizes or produces nearly 150 different charsets and is able to transliterate files between almost any pair. Most RFC 1345 charsets are supported.

regex-0.12 (REGEX_0_)—The GNU regex library routines. It is compliant with POSIX.2, except for internationalization features. It also includes a programmer's reference manual for the library (which is slightly out of date for version 0.12).

rx-0.05 (RX_0_05)—Rx is a pattern matcher compatible with GNU regex, but generally faster (when compiled with gcc -O or in some other way that supports the inline keyword). Version 0.05 is probably not stable.

sed-1.18 (SED_1_18)—sed is a text editor much like ed, but is stream-oriented. It is used copiously in shell scripts. Although GNU sed has fewer static limitations in terms of buffer size, command length, etc., it is a little slower than most implementations. Instructions for building GNU sed are in the file README.

sed-2.05 (SED_2_05)—This is a newer version of GNU sed, with many bug fixes. It also uses a beta test version of the rx library, instead of the older and slower regex library. (Because that library is still in beta testing, sed Version 1 is also included on this CD-ROM.) Instructions for building GNU sed are in the file README.

sh-utils-1.10 (SH_UTILS)—These are the GNU shell utilities, comprising small commands that are frequently run on the command line or in shell scripts. Instructions for compiling these utilities are in the file README. The sh-utils package contains the following programs: basename, date, dirname, echo, env, expr, false, groups, hostname, id, logname, nice, nohup, pathchk, printenv, printf, pwd, sleep, stty, su, tee, test, true, tty, uname, users, who, whoami, yes.

smalltalk-1.1.1 (SMALLTAL)—This is the GNU implementation of Smalltalk, an object-oriented programming language. Instructions for compiling it are in the file README.

superopt-2.3 (SUPEROPT)—The superoptimizer is a function sequence generator that uses an exhaustive generate-and-test approach to find the shortest instruction sequence for a given function.

tar-1.11.2 (TAR_1_11)—Tar is a program used for archiving many files in a single file, which makes them easier to transport. GNU tar includes multivolume support, the ability to archive sparse files, automatic archive compression/decompression, remote archives, and special features to allow tar to be used for incremental and full backups. Unfortunately GNU tar implements an early draft of the POSIX 1003.1 'ustar standard which is different from the final standard. Adding support for the new changes in a backward-compatible fashion is not trivial. Instructions for compiling GNU tar may be found in the file README.

termcap-1.2 (TERMCAP_)—This is a stand-alone release of the GNU Termcap library, which has been part of the GNU Emacs distribution for years but is now available separately to make it easier to install as libtermcap.a. The GNU Termcap library does not place an arbitrary limit on the size of termcap entries, unlike most other termcap libraries. Instructions for building the termcap library are in the README file.

TeX-3.1415 (TEX_3_14)—This is version 3.1415 of the C TeX translation from the original WEB version. Instructions for building TeX and references for further reading are in the file TeX-3.1415/web2c-6.1/README.

texinfo-3.1 (TEXINFO_)—This package contains a set of utilities related to Texinfo, which is used to generate printed manuals and online hypertext-style manuals (called info). Programs and interfaces for writing, reading, and formatting texinfo files are available both as stand-alone programs and as GNU Emacs interfaces. See the file README for directions on how to use the various parts of this package.

textutils-1.9 (TEXTUTIL)—These are the GNU text utilities, commands that are used to operate on textual data. Instructions for compiling these utilities are in the file README. The textutils package contains the following programs: cat, cksum, comm, csplit, cut, expand, fold, head, join, nl, od, paste, pr, sort, split, sum, tac, tail, tr, unexpand, uniq, wc.

tput-1.0 (TPUT_1_0)—tput provides a portable way of allowing shell scripts to use special terminal capabilities. Although its interface is similar to that of terminfo-based tput programs, this one uses termcap. Instructions for compiling tput are in the README file.

trn-3.5 (TRN_3_5)—Trn is Threaded RN, a newsreader that uses an article's references to order the discussions in a natural, reply-ordered sequence called threads. Having the replies associated with their parent articles not only makes following the discussion easier, but also makes it easy to backtrack and read a specific discussion from the beginning. By Wayne Davidson, based on rn by Larry Wall and Stan Barber.

uucp-1.05 (UUCP_1_0)—This version of UUCP was written by Ian Lance Taylor. It will be the standard UUCP system for GNU. It currently supports the f, g (in all window and packet sizes), G, t and e protocols, as well as Zmodem protocol and two new bidirectional protocols. If you have a Berkeley sockets library, it can make TCP connections. If you have TLI libraries, it can make TLI connections. Other important notes about this version of UUCP, and instructions for building it, are in the file README.

uuencode-1.0 (UUENCODE)—Uuencode and uudecode are used to transmit binary files over transmission mediums that do not support anything other than simple ASCII data.

wdiff-0.04 (WDIFF_0_)—wdiff compares two files, finding which words have been deleted or added to the first for getting the second. We hope eventually to integrate wdiff, as well as some ideas from a similar program called spiff, into some future release of GNU diff.

X11R6 (X11R6)—This is the X Window System. The complete "core" distribution is included, plus a preliminary release of the "contributed" distribution. The following patches from the X Consortium have already been applied to the core distribution: fix-01 Released 17 May 1994.

xvnews (XVNEWS)—An Openlook newsreader that uses the XView 3 toolkit. It has been tested using Sun OpenWindows Version 2 and Version 3 xnews servers along with olvwm, olwm, and twm. By J.J. deGraaff.

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