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XNS Commands

XNS Commands

Developed by the Xerox Corporation, the XNS protocols are designed to be used across a variety of communication media, processors, and office applications. Ungermann-Bass, Inc. (now a part of Tandem Computers) adopted XNS in developing its Net/One XNS routing protocol. Standard XNS routing uses the RIP update packets and the hop-count metric. Ungermann-Bass Net/One uses hello packets and a path-delay metric.

This chapter describes the commands to configure both standard XNS routing and Ungermann-Bass Net/One XNS routing. You can also configure Cisco routers to interoperate with Ungermann-Bass routers. For XNS configuration information and examples, refer to the "Configuring XNS" chapter in the Network Protocols Configuration Guide, Part 3.


Note Not all Cisco access servers support XNS. For more information, refer to the release notes for the release you are running.

access-list (extended)

To define an extended XNS access list, use the extended version of the access-list global configuration command. To remove an extended access list, use the no form of this command.

access-list access-list-number {deny | permit} protocol [source-network [.source-host
[source-network-mask.source-host-mask] source-socket
[destination-network [.destination-host
[destination-network-mask.destination-host-mask] [destination-socket[/pep]]]
no access-list access-list-number {deny | permit} protocol [source-network[.source-host
[source-network-mask.source-host-mask]] source-socket
[destination-network [.destination-host
[destination-network-mask.destination-host-mask] destination-socket[/pep]]]


Note If
network masks are used, then all fields are required, except the destination socket and the destination Packet Exchange Protocol (PEP) type.

Syntax Description

access-list-number

Number of the access list. This is a decimal number from 500  to  599.

deny

Denies access if the conditions are matched.

permit

Permits access if the conditions are matched.

protocol

Number of an XNS protocol, in decimal. See the documentation accompanying your host's XNS implementation for a list of protocol numbers.

source-network

(Optional) Number of the network from which the packet is being sent. This is a 32-bit decimal number. A network number of -1 matches all networks.

You can omit leading zeros from the network number.

Note that you enter the network number in decimal, and this number is expressed in decimal format in Cisco's configuration files and routing tables. However, the Cisco IOS software internally converts the network number into hexadecimal. This means, for instance, that a network analyzer will display the network number in hexadecimal.

.source-host

(Optional) Host on source-network from which the packet is being sent. This is a 48-bit hexadecimal value represented as a dotted triplet of 4-digit hexadecimal numbers (xxxx.xxxx.xxxx).

source-network-mask

(Optional) Mask to be applied to source-network. The mask is a 32-bit decimal number. The mask must immediately be followed by a period, which must in turn immediately be followed by source-host-mask.

.source-host-mask

(Optional) Mask to be applied to source-host. This is a 48-bit value represented as a dotted triplet of four-digit hexadecimal numbers (xxxx.xxxx.xxxx). Place ones in the bit positions you want to mask.

source-socket

Number of the socket from which the packet is being sent. This is a 16-bit decimal value. See the documentation accompanying your host's XNS implementation for a list of socket numbers.

destination-network

(Optional) Number of the network to which the packet is being sent. This is a 32-bit decimal number. A network number of -1 matches all networks.

You can omit leading zeros from the network number.

Note that you enter the network number in decimal, and this number is expressed in decimal format in Cisco's configuration files and routing tables. However, the Cisco IOS software internally converts the network number into hexadecimal. This means, for instance, that a network analyzer will display the network number in hexadecimal.

.destination-host

(Optional) Host on destination-network to which the packet is being sent. This is a 48-bit hexadecimal value represented as a dotted triplet of four-digit hexadecimal numbers (xxxx.xxxx.xxxx).

destination-network-mask

(Optional) Mask to be applied to destination-network. The mask is a 32-bit decimal number. The mask must immediately be followed by a period, which must in turn immediately be followed by destination-host-mask.

.destination-host-mask

(Optional) Mask to be applied to destination-host. This is a 48-bit value represented as a dotted triplet of four-digit hexadecimal numbers (xxxx.xxxx.xxxx). Place ones in the bit positions you want to mask.

destination-socket

(Optional) Number of the socket to which the packet is being sent. This is a 16-bit decimal value. See the documentation accompanying your host's XNS implementation for a list of socket numbers.

/pep

(Optional) Packet Exchange Protocol (PEP) type. PEP is a connectionless-oriented protocol that uses XNS Type 4 initial domain part (IDP) frames.

Default

No access lists are defined.

Command Mode

Global configuration

Usage Guidelines

This command first appeared in Cisco IOS Release 10.0. The pep argument first appeared in Cisco IOS Release 11.0.

Extended XNS access lists filter on protocol type. All other parameters are optional.

Use the xns access-group command to assign an access list to an interface. You can apply only one extended or one standard access list to an interface. The access list filters all outgoing packets on the interface.

Examples

The following example shows two ways to allow protocol type 20 on any socket (from a certain make of machine) on network 10 to access any hosts on networks 1000 to 1015 on any socket. The access-list commands were issued without using the network mask option.

access-list 505 permit 20 10.0000.0C00.0000 0000.0000.FFFF 0 1000 0
access-list 505 permit 20 10.0000.0C00.0000 0000.0000.FFFF 0 1001 0
access-list 505 permit 20 10.0000.0C00.0000 0000.0000.FFFF 0 1002 0
access-list 505 permit 20 10.0000.0C00.0000 0000.0000.FFFF 0 1003 0
access-list 505 permit 20 10.0000.0C00.0000 0000.0000.FFFF 0 1004 0
access-list 505 permit 20 10.0000.0C00.0000 0000.0000.FFFF 0 1005 0
access-list 505 permit 20 10.0000.0C00.0000 0000.0000.FFFF 0 1006 0
access-list 505 permit 20 10.0000.0C00.0000 0000.0000.FFFF 0 1007 0
access-list 505 permit 20 10.0000.0C00.0000 0000.0000.FFFF 0 1008 0
access-list 505 permit 20 10.0000.0C00.0000 0000.0000.FFFF 0 1009 0
access-list 505 permit 20 10.0000.0C00.0000 0000.0000.FFFF 0 1010 0
access-list 505 permit 20 10.0000.0C00.0000 0000.0000.FFFF 0 1011 0
access-list 505 permit 20 10.0000.0C00.0000 0000.0000.FFFF 0 1012 0
access-list 505 permit 20 10.0000.0C00.0000 0000.0000.FFFF 0 1013 0
access-list 505 permit 20 10.0000.0C00.0000 0000.0000.FFFF 0 1014 0
access-list 505 permit 20 10.0000.0C00.0000 0000.0000.FFFF 0 1015 0

In the following example, the access-list command performs the same operation, but in a much shorter time, because the netmask option is used:

access-list 505 permit 20 10.0000.0C00.0000 0000.0000.FFFF 0
1000.0000.0000.0000 15.FFFF.FFFF.FFFF 0

Related Commands

You can use the master indexes or search online to find documentation of related commands.

access-list (extended)
xns access-group
xns input-network-filter

access-list (standard)

To define a standard XNS access list, use the standard version of the access-list global configuration command. To remove a standard access list, use the no form of this command.

access-list access-list-number {deny | permit} source-network [.source-address
[source-address-mask]] [destination-network[.destination-address
[destination-address-mask]]]
no access-list access-list-number

Syntax Description

access-list-number

Number of the access list. This is a decimal number from 400  to  499.

deny

Denies access if the conditions are matched.

permit

Permits access if the conditions are matched.

source-network

Number of the network from which the packet is being sent. This is a 32-bit decimal number. You can omit leading zeros. A network number of -1 matches all networks.

Note that you enter the network number in decimal, and this number is expressed in decimal format in Cisco's configuration files and routing tables. However, the Cisco IOS software internally converts the network number into hexadecimal. This means, for instance, that a network analyzer will display the network number in hexadecimal.

.source-address

(Optional) Host on source-network from which the packet is being sent. This is a 48-bit hexadecimal value represented as a dotted triplet of four-digit hexadecimal numbers (xxxx.xxxx.xxxx).

source-address-mask

(Optional) Mask to be applied to source-address. This is a 48-bit value represented as a dotted triplet of four-digit hexadecimal numbers (xxxx.xxxx.xxxx). Place ones in the bit positions you want to mask.

destination-network

(Optional) Number of the network to which the packet is being sent. This is a 32-bit decimal number. A network number of -1 matches all networks.

You can omit leading zeros from the network number.

Note that you enter the network number in decimal, and this number is expressed in decimal format in Cisco's configuration files and routing tables. However, the Cisco IOS software internally converts the network number into hexadecimal. This means, for instance, that a network analyzer will display the network number in hexadecimal.

..destination-address

(Optional) Host on destination-network to which the packet is being sent. This is a 48-bit hexadecimal value represented as a dotted triplet of four-digit hexadecimal numbers (xxxx.xxxx.xxxx).

destination-address-mask

(Optional) Mask to be applied to destination-address. This is a 48-bit value represented as a dotted triplet of four-digit hexadecimal numbers (xxxx.xxxx.xxxx). Place ones in the bit positions you want to mask.

Default

No access lists are defined.

Command Mode

Global configuration

Usage Guidelines

This command first appeared in Cisco IOS Release 10.0.

Standard XNS access lists filter on the source network only. All other parameters are optional. This means that you cannot use them to prevent traffic from going to or coming from specific hosts.

Use the xns access-group command to assign an access list to an interface. You can apply only one extended or one standard access list to an interface. The access list filters all outgoing packets on the interface.

Examples

The following example denies access to packets from source network 1 that are destined for
network 2. It permits all other traffic.

access-list 400 deny 1 2
access-list 400 permit -1 -1

The following example adds masks for the source and destination networks:

access-list 400 deny 1.0011.1622.0015 0000.0000.0000 2.301D3.020C.0022
0000.00ff.ffff
access-list 400 permit -1 0000.0000.0000 -1 0000.0000.0000

Related Commands

You can use the master indexes or search online for documentation of related commands.

ping (user)
xns access-group
xns input-network-filter

ping (privileged)

To check host reachability and network connectivity, use the ping privileged EXEC command.

ping

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Command Mode

Privileged EXEC

Usage Guidelines

This command first appeared in Cisco IOS Release 10.0.

The privileged ping command provides a complete ping facility for users who have system privileges.

If the system cannot map an address for a host name, it returns an "%Unrecognized host or address" error message.

To abort a ping session, type the escape sequence. By default, this is Ctrl-^ X. You enter this by simultaneously pressing the Ctrl, Shift, and 6 keys, letting go, and then pressing the X key.

Table 70 describes the test characters displayed in ping responses.


Table 70: Ping Test Characters (XNS Privileged)
Character Description

!

Each exclamation point indicates receipt of a reply.

.

Each period indicates the network server timed out while waiting for a reply.

U

A destination unreachable error protocol data unit (ERPDU) was received.

C

A congestion experienced packet was received.

I

User interrupted the test.

?

Unknown packet type.

&

Packet lifetime exceeded.

Sample Display

The following display shows sample input to and output from the ping command:

Router# ping
Protocol [ip]: xns
Target XNS address: 2001.aa00.0400.6508
Repeat count [5]:
Datagram size [100]:
Timeout in seconds [2]:
Verbose [n]:n
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte XNS Echos to 2001.aa00.0400.6508, timeout is 2 seconds:
Success rate is 100 percent, round-trip min/avg/max = 4/5/12 ms

The following is sample input to and output from the XNS ping command in verbose mode. In this mode, the command shows the round-trip time, in milliseconds, for each XNS echo packet sent. In this display, the packets are labeled 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4.

Router# ping
Protocol [ip]: xns
Target XNS address: 2001.aa00.0400.6508
Repeat count [5]:
Datagram size [100]:
Timeout in seconds [2]:
Verbose [n]: y
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte XNS Echos to 2001.aa00.0400.6508, timeout is 2 seconds:
0 in 12 ms
1 in 4 ms
2 in 4 ms
3 in 4 ms
4 in 4 ms
Success rate is 100 percent, round-trip min/avg/max = 4/5/12 ms

ping (user)

To check host reachability and network connectivity, use the ping user EXEC command.

ping xns address

Syntax Description

xns

Specifies the XNS protocol.

address

Address of system to ping.

Command Mode

User EXEC

Usage Guidelines

This command first appeared in Cisco IOS Release 10.0.

The user ping (packet internet groper function) command provides a basic ping facility for users who do not have system privileges. This command is equivalent to the nonverbose form of the privileged ping command. It sends five 100-byte ping packets.

The ping command works only on Cisco's network servers running Release 8.2 or later.

If the system cannot map an address for a host name, it returns an "%Unrecognized host or address" error message.

To abort a ping session, type the escape sequence. By default, this is Ctrl-^ X. You enter this by simultaneously pressing the Ctrl, Shift, and 6 keys, letting go, and then pressing the X key.

Table 71 describes the test characters displayed in ping responses.


Table 71: Ping Test Characters (XNS User)
Character Description

!

Each exclamation point indicates receipt of a reply.

.

Each period indicates the network server timed out while waiting for a reply.

U

A destination unreachable ERPDU was received.

C

A congestion experienced packet was received.

I

User interrupted the test.

?

Unknown packet type.

&

Packet lifetime exceeded.

Sample Display

The following display is sample output from the XNS ping command:

router> ping xns 1.0000.0c01.f4cf
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte XNS Echoes to 1.0000.0c01.f4cf, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent, round-trip min/avg/max = 4/5/12 ms

Related Commands

You can use the master indexes or search online for documentation of related commands.

ping (privileged)

show xns cache

To display the contents of the XNS fast-switching cache, use the show xns cache EXEC command.

show xns cache

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Command Mode

User EXEC

Usage Guidelines

This command first appeared in Cisco IOS Release 10.0.

Sample Display

The following is sample output from the show xns cache command:

Router# show xns cache
          XNS routing cache version is 23
          Destination                      Interface              MAC Header
*        2.0000.00c0.1234            Ethernet1              000000C0123400000C00D8DB0600

Table 72 describes the fields shown in the display.


Table 72: Show XNS Cache Field Descriptions
Field Description

XNS routing cache version is 23

Number identifying the fast-switching cache table. It increments each time the table changes.

Destination

Destination network for this packet. Valid entries are marked by an asterisk (*).

Interface

Router interface through which this packet is transmitted.

MAC Header

First bytes of this packet's MAC header.

Related Commands

You can use the master indexes or search online for documentation of related commands.

xns route-cache

show xns interface

To display the status of the XNS interfaces configured in the Cisco IOS software and the parameters configured on each interface, use the show xns interface EXEC command.

show xns interface [type number]

Syntax Description

type

(Optional) Interface type. It can be one of the following types: asynchronous, dialer, Ethernet (IEEE 802.3), loopback, null, serial, or tunnel.

number

(Optional) Interface number.

Command Mode

EXEC

Usage Guidelines

This command first appeared in Cisco IOS Release 10.0.

Sample Display

The following is sample output from the show xns interface command:

Router# show xns interface
Ethernet 0 is up, line protocol is up
XNS address is 60.0000.0c00.1d23
xns encapsulation is ARPA
Helper address is 912.ffff.ffff.ffff
Outgoing address list is not set
Input filter list is not set
Output filter list is not set
Router filter list is not set
Update timer is not set
XNS fast-switching enabled
Ethernet 1 is administratively down, line protocol is down
XNS protocol processing disabled
Serial 1 is up, line protocol is up
XNS protocol processing disabled

Table 73 describes the fields shown in the display.


Table 73: Show XNS Interface Field Descriptions
Field Description

Ethernet 0 is up

Type of interface and whether it is currently active and inserted into the network (up) or inactive and not inserted (down).

line protocol is up

Indicates whether the software processes that handle the line protocol believe that the interface is usable (that is, whether keepalives are successful).

XNS address

Network and host number of the local router interface.

xns encapsulation

Type of encapsulation configured on the interface.

Helper address

Address of a target XNS server or network to which broadcast XNS packets are forwarded, as configured with the xns helper-address command.

Outgoing address list

Indicates whether an access list has been enabled with the access-list command.

Input filter list

Number of the input filter applied to the interface with the command.

Output filter list

Number of the output filter applied to the interface with the command.

Router filter list

Number of the router filter applied to the interface with the command.

Update timer

How often the Cisco IOS software sends RIP updates, as configured with the command.

XNS fast-switching

Indicates whether XNS fast switching is enabled (default) or disabled for this interface.

administratively down

Hardware has been taken down by an administrator.

Related Commands

You can use the master indexes or search online for documentation of related commands.

access-list (extended)
ping (user)
xns helper-address
xns input-network-filter
xns output-network-filter
xns router-filter
xns update-time

show xns route

To display the contents of the XNS routing table, use the show xns route EXEC command.

show xns route [network]

Syntax Description

network

(Optional) Number of the network that the route is to. This is a 32-bit decimal number. You can omit leading zeros.

Command Mode

EXEC

Usage Guidelines

This command first appeared in Cisco IOS Release 10.0.

Sample Display

The following is sample output from the show xns route command:

Router# show xns route
Codes: R - RIP derived, C - connected, S - static, 1 learned routes
Maximum allowed path(s) are/is 1
C Net 14 is directly connected, 0 uses, Ethernet0
C Net 15 is directly connected, 0 uses, Ethernet1
R Net 16 [1/0] via 14.0000.0c00.3e3b, 10 sec, 0 uses, Ethernet0

Table 74 describes the fields shown in the display.


Table 74: Show XNS Route Field Descriptions
Field Description

Codes

Codes defining how the route was learned.

R

Route learned from a RIP update.

C

Directly connected network.

S

Statically defined route via the command.

learned routes

Number of routes learned from RIP updates.

Maximum allowed paths

Maximum number of paths for which the Cisco IOS software has been configured with the command.

Net 14

XNS network number.

is directly connected

Indicates that the network is directly connected to the router.

uses

Fair estimate of the number of times a route gets used. It actually indicates the number of times the route has been selected for use prior to operations such as access list filtering.

Ethernet0

Possible interface through which you can reach the remote network via the specified router.

[1/0]

Delay/Metric. The delay is the delay between sending routing updates. The metric is the XNS metric used in making routing decisions.

via

Address of a router that is the next hop to the remote network.

sec

Number of seconds since information about this network was last heard.

Related Commands

You can use the master indexes or search online for documentation of related commands.

xns maximum-paths
xns route

show xns traffic

To display information about the number and type of XNS packets transmitted and received by the Cisco IOS software, use the show xns traffic EXEC command.

show xns traffic

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Command Mode

EXEC

Usage Guidelines

This command first appeared in Cisco IOS Release 10.0.

Sample Display

The following is sample output from the show xns traffic command:

Router# show xns traffic
Rec: 3968 total, 0 format errors, 0 checksum errors, 0 bad hop count, 
  3968 local destination, 0 multicast
Bcast: 2912 received, 925 sent
Sent: 5923 generated, 500 forwarded, 0 encapsulation failed, 0 not routable
Errors: 10 received, 20 sent
Echo: Recd: 100 requests, 89 replies   Sent: 20 requests, 20 replies
Unknown: 5 packets

Table 75 describes significant fields shown in the display.


Table 75: Show XNS Traffic Statistics Field Descriptions
Field Description

Rec:

Description of the XNS packets received.

 3968 total

Total number of packets received.

 0 format errors

Number of bad packets discarded (for example, packets with a corrupted header).

 0 checksum errors

Number of packets discarded because they contained checksum errors.

 0 bad hop count

Number of packets discarded because their hop count exceeded 16 (that is, the packets timed out).

 3968 local destination

Number of packets sent to the local broadcast address or specifically to the router.

 0 multicast

Number of packets received that were addressed to multiple destinations.

Bcast:

Number of broadcast packets received and sent.

Sent:

Description of the XNS packets the router has sent.

 5923 generated

Number of packets transmitted that it generated itself.

 500 forwarded

Number of packets transmitted that it forwarded from other sources.

 0 encapsulation failed

Number of packets the router was unable to encapsulate.

 0 not routable

Number of times the router could not locate in the routing table a route to the destination.

Errors:

Number of packets sent and received that contained errors.

Echo:

Number of ping packets received and sent, and the number of replies it received.

Unknown:

Number of packets the router was unable to forward, for example, because of a misconfigured helper address or because no route was available.

xns access-group

To apply a generic filter to an interface, use the xns access-group interface configuration command. To remove the access list, use the no form of this command.

xns access-group access-list-number
no xns access-group access-list-number

Syntax Description

access-list-number

Number of the access list. All outgoing packets defined with either standard or extended access lists and forwarded through the interface are filtered by the entries in this access list. For standard access lists, access-list-number is a decimal number from 400 to 499. For extended access lists, access-list-number is a decimal number from 500 to 599.

Default

No generic filters are applied by default.

Command Mode

Interface configuration

Usage Guidelines

This command first appeared in Cisco IOS Release 10.0.

The xns access-group command applies a generic filter to an interface. These filters control which packets are sent out an interface based on the packet's source and destination addresses, XNS protocol type, and source and destination socket numbers. You use the access-list (extended) and ping (user) commands to specify the filtering conditions.

You can apply only one filter to an interface.

Example

The following example applies the access list 500 to Ethernet interface 0:

interface ethernet 0
  xns access-group 500

Related Commands

You can use the master indexes or search online for documentation of related commands.

access-list (extended)
ping (user)

xns encapsulation

To select the type of encapsulation used on a Token Ring interface, use the xns encapsulation interface configuration command. To disable the encapsulation, use the no form of this command.

xns encapsulation {snap | ub | 3com}
no xns encapsulation {snap | ub | 3com}

Syntax Description

snap

802.2 LLC encapsulation. This is the default encapsulation type. Use this encapsulation type with IBM Token Ring networks.

ub

Ungermann-Bass encapsulation.

3com

3Com encapsulation. Use this encapsulation type when older 3Com Corporation products are present on the network.

Default

snap

Command Mode

Interface configuration

Usage Guidelines

This command first appeared in Cisco IOS Release 10.0.

You must specify this command on an interface if you want a Token Ring interface to forward XNS packets.

Some 3Com 3+ hosts do not recognize Token Ring packets with the source-route bridging routing information field (RIF) set. You can work around this discrepancy by using the no multiring xns interface configuration command on Token Ring interfaces that are used for 3Com XNS routing. For more information, see the "Source-Route Bridging Commands" chapter in the Bridging and IBM Networking Command Reference.

Example

The following example uses Ungermann-Bass-style encapsulation when forwarding Token Ring packets across an interface:

interface tokenring 0
  xns network 23
  xns encapsulation ub

Related Commands

You can use the master indexes or search online to find documentation of related commands.

multiring
xns hear-rip
xns ub-emulation

xns flood broadcast allnets

To flood broadcast packets whose destination address is -1.FFFF.FFFF.FFFF, use the xns flood broadcast allnets interface configuration command. To disable this type of flooding, use the no form of this command.

xns flood broadcast allnets
no xns flood broadcast allnets

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Default

Disabled

Command Mode

Interface configuration

Usage Guidelines

This command first appeared in Cisco IOS Release 10.0.

The xns flood broadcast allnets command configures all-nets flooding. In this type of routing, all broadcast packets are sent to all networks (as indicated by the network address -1) and to all host on those networks (as indicated by the host address FFFF.FFFF.FFFF).

You can specify a network address of -1 only with the xns flood broadcast commands. In all other commands, it is an invalid address.

Flooding is applied to the packets received on an interface.

It is most closely in accordance with the XNS specification to flood packets with destinations of
-1.FFFF.FFFF.FFFF and destinations of -1.specific-host, but not to flood packets with destinations of 0.FFFF.FFFF.FFFF.

Example

The following example configures the interface to flood broadcast packets:

interface ethernet 0
  xns network 20
  xns broadcast allnets

Related Commands

You can use the master indexes or search online for documentation of related commands.

xns flood broadcast net-zero
xns flood specific allnets
xns hear-rip

xns flood broadcast net-zero

To flood packets whose destinations address is 0.FFFF.FFFF.FFFF, use the xns  flood broadcast net-zero interface configuration command. To disable this type of flooding, use the no form of this command.

xns flood broadcast net-zero
no xns flood broadcast net-zero

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Default

Disabled

Command Mode

Interface configuration

Usage Guidelines

This command first appeared in Cisco IOS Release 10.0.

The xns flood broadcast net-zero command sends broadcast packets to all hosts (as indicated by the host address FFFF.FFFF.FFFF) on the local network (as indicated by the network address 0). This broadcast configuration is required in some 3Com environments.

Flooding is applied to the packets received on an interface.

Example

The following example sends broadcast packets destined for the local network to all hosts on that network:

interface ethernet 0
  xns network 20
  xns flood broadcast net-zero

Related Commands

You can use the master indexes or search online for documentation of related commands.

xns flood broadcast allnets
xns flood specific allnets
xns hear-rip

xns flood specific allnets

To flood packets whose destination address is -1.specific-host, use the xns flood specific allnets interface configuration command. To disable this type of flooding, use the no form of this command.

xns flood specific allnets
no xns flood specific allnets

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Default

Disabled

Command Mode

Interface configuration

Usage Guidelines

This command first appeared in Cisco IOS Release 10.0.

The xns flood specific allnets command forwards broadcast packets as MAC-layer broadcasts so that they can be picked up and further flooded by other routers.

You can specify a network address of -1 only with the xns flood broadcast commands. In all other commands, it is an invalid address.

Flooding is applied to the packets received on an interface.

It is most closely in accordance with the XNS specification to flood packets with destinations of
-1.FFFF.FFFF.FFFF and destinations of -1.specific-host, but not to flood packets with destinations of 0.FFFF.FFFF.FFFF.

Example

The following example floods packets with destinations of -1.specific-host:

interface ethernet 0
  xns network 20
  xns flood broadcast specific allnets

Related Commands

You can use the master indexes or search online for documentation of related commands.

xns flood broadcast allnets
xns flood specific allnets
xns hear-rip

xns forward-protocol

To forward packets of a specific XNS protocol to a helper address, use the xns forward-protocol global configuration command. To disable the forwarding of these packets, use the no form of this command.

xns forward-protocol protocol
no xns forward-protocol protocol

Syntax Description

protocol

Number of an XNS protocol, in decimal. See the documentation accompanying your host's XNS implementation for a list of protocol numbers.

Default

Disabled

Command Mode

Global configuration

Usage Guidelines

This command first appeared in Cisco IOS Release 10.0.

Example

The following example forwards packets of protocol type 2 to the specified helper address:

xns forward-protocol 2
interface ethernet 0
  xns helper-address 26.FFFF.FFFF.FFFF

Related Commands

You can use the master indexes or search online for documentation of related commands.

xns helper-address

xns hear-rip

To receive RIP updates, use the xns hear-rip interface configuration command. To disable the receipt of RIP updates, use the no form of this command.

xns hear-rip [access-list-number]
no xns hear-rip

Syntax Description

access-list-number

(Optional) Number of the access list. This list defines the routes
the Cisco IOS software is to learn through standard RIP. The list is applied to individual routes within the RIP packet, not to the address of the packet's sender. For standard access lists, access-list-number is a decimal number from 400 to 499. For extended access lists, access-list-number is a decimal number from 500 to 599.

Default

Disabled

Command Mode

Interface configuration

Usage Guidelines

This command first appeared in Cisco IOS Release 10.0.

Delay metrics are computed as if each hop mentioned by the RIP update were a 9.6-kbps serial link. Ordinarily, the result is that the Cisco IOS software prefers an all-Ungermann-Bass path over an all-RIP path. If you want the software to learn only certain routes through standard RIP, specify an access list number as an argument to the xns hear-rip command. The software will then learn from RIP packets only routes to networks permitted by the access list. Note that the access list is applied to individual routes within the RIP packet, not to the address of the packet's sender.

In an Ungermann-Bass environment, you should configure all interfaces with the xns  flood broadcast allnets and xns flood specific allnets commands. You should not configure them with the xns flood broadcast net-zero command. You should configure Token Ring interfaces that are directly connected to Ungermann-Bass nodes with the xns  encapsulation  ub command.

Example

In the following example, serial interface 0 receives RIP updates:

interface serial 0
  xns network 24
  xns hear-rip

Related Commands

You can use the master indexes or search online for documentation of related commands.

xns flood broadcast allnets
xns flood broadcast net-zero
xns flood specific allnets
xns ub-emulation

xns helper-address

To forward broadcast packets to a specified server, use the xns helper-address interface configuration command. To disable this function, use the no form of this command.

xns helper-address network.host
no xns helper-address network.host

Syntax Description

network

Network on which the target XNS server resides. This is a 32-bit decimal number.

host

Host number of the target XNS server. This is a 48-bit hexadecimal value represented as a dotted triplet of four-digit hexadecimal numbers (xxxx.xxxx.xxxx). The host must be directly connected to one of the router's directly attached networks. A number of FFFF.FFFF.FFFF indicates all hosts on the specified network.

Default

Disabled

Command Mode

Interface configuration

Usage Guidelines

This command first appeared in Cisco IOS Release 10.0.

Routers normally block all broadcast requests and do not forward them to other network segments. This is done to prevent the degradation of performance over the entire network. The xns helper-address command allows broadcasts to be forwarded to other networks. This is useful when a network segment does not have a server capable of handling broadcasts. This command enables you to forward the broadcasts to a server, network, or networks that can process them. Incoming unrecognized broadcast packets that match the access list created with the xns helper-list command (if it is present) are forwarded.

When a packet is helpered, the Cisco IOS software changes its destination address to be the configured helper address, and the packet is routed toward that address. The host at the helper address is expected to process the packet and (usually) to reply to the packet's sender. A helper address can be a directed broadcast address, in which case the helpered packet will be forwarded to a remote network and rebroadcast there.

You can specify multiple xns helper-address commands on a given interface.

Example

In the following example, the server at address 0000.0c00.23fe receives all broadcasts on network  51:

xns helper-address 51.0000.0c00.23fe

Related Commands

You can use the master indexes or search online for documentation of related commands.

xns forward-protocol

xns input-network-filter

To control which networks are added to the routing table, use the xns input-network-filter interface configuration command. To remove the filter from the interface, use the no form of this command.

xns input-network-filter access-list-number
no xns input-network-filter access-list-number

Syntax Description

access-list-number

Number of the access list. All incoming packets defined with either standard or extended access lists are filtered by the entries in this access list. For standard access lists, access-list-number is a decimal number from 400 to 499. For extended access lists, it is a decimal number from 500 to 599.

Default

No networks are added to the routing table.

Command Mode

Interface configuration

Usage Guidelines

This command first appeared in Cisco IOS Release 10.0.

The xns input-network-filter command controls which networks are added to the routing table based on the networks learned in incoming XNS routing updates (RIP updates) on the interface.

You can issue only one xns input-network-filter command on each interface.

Example

In the following example, access list 476 controls which networks are added to the routing table when RIP packets are received on Ethernet interface 1. Network 16 is the only network whose information will be added to the routing table. Routing updates for all other networks are implicitly denied and are not added to the routing table.

access-list 476 permit 16
interface ethernet 1
  xns input-network-filter 476

Related Commands

You can use the master indexes or search online for documentation of related commands.

access-list (extended)
ping (user)
xns output-network-filter

xns maximum-paths

To set the maximum number of paths the Cisco IOS software uses when sending packets, use the xns maximum-paths global configuration command. To restore the default value, use the no form of this command.

xns maximum-paths number
no xns maximum-paths

Syntax Description

number

Maximum number of equal-cost paths from which the software chooses. It can be a number from 1 to 512. The default is 1.

Default

1 path

Command Mode

Global configuration

Usage Guidelines

This command first appeared in Cisco IOS Release 10.0.

A router can use multiple paths to reach an XNS destination to increase throughput in the network. By default, the router picks one best path and send all traffic on this path, but you can configure it to remember two or more paths that have equal costs (the cost metric is hop count for standard XNS RIP) and to balance the traffic load across all the available paths. (Note that when paths have differing costs, the device chooses lower-cost routes in preference to higher-cost routes.) Packets are distributed over the multiple paths in round-robin fashion on a packet-by-packet basis. That is, the first packet is sent along the first path, the second packet along the second path, and so on. If the final path is reached before all packets are sent, the next packet is sent to the first path, the next to the second path, and so on.

Limiting the number of equal-cost paths can save memory on routers with limited memory or with very large configurations. Additionally, in networks with a large number of multiple paths and systems with limited ability to cache out-of-sequence packets, performance might suffer when traffic is split between many paths.

Example

In the following example, the router uses up to two alternate paths:

xns maximum-paths 2

Related Commands

You can use the master indexes or search online for documentation of related commands.

show xns route

xns network

To enable XNS routing on a particular interface by assigning a network number to the interface, use the xns network interface configuration command. To disable XNS routing on an interface, use the no form of this command.

xns network number
no xns network

Syntax Description

number

Network number. This is a 32-bit decimal number. You can omit leading zeros.

Default

XNS routing is disabled.

Command Mode

Interface configuration

Usage Guidelines

This command first appeared in Cisco IOS Release 10.0.

Interfaces not enabled to run XNS ignore any XNS packets that they receive.

Every XNS interface must have a unique XNS network number.

Example

The following example enables XNS routing, specifying that XNS networks 20 and 21 are connected to two of the router's Ethernet interfaces:

xns routing
interface ethernet 0
  xns network 20
interface ethernet 1
  xns network 21

Related Commands

You can use the master indexes or search online for documentation of related commands.

show xns interface
xns routing

xns output-network-filter

To control the list of networks included in routing updates sent out an interface, use the xns output-network-filter interface configuration command. To remove the filter from the interface, use the no form of this command.

xns output-network-filter access-list-number
no xns output-network-filter access-list-number

Syntax Description

access-list-number

Number of the access list. All outgoing packets defined with either standard or extended access lists are filtered by the entries in this access list. For standard access lists, access-list-number is a decimal number from 400 to 499. For extended access lists, it is a decimal number from 500 to 599.

Default

No list of networks is included in the routing updates sent out an interface.

Command Mode

Interface configuration

Usage Guidelines

This command first appeared in Cisco IOS Release 10.0.

The xns output-network-filter command controls which networks the Cisco IOS software advertises in its routing updates (RIP updates).

You can issue only one xns output-network-filter command on each interface.

Example

In the following example, access list 496 controls which networks are specified in routing updates sent out serial interface 1. This configuration causes network 27 to be the only network advertised in routing updates sent on the defined serial interface.

access-list 496 permit 27
interface serial 1
  xns output-network-filter 496

Related Commands

You can use the master indexes or search online for documentation of related commands.

xns input-network-filter
xns router-filter

xns route

To add a static route to the XNS routing table, use the xns route global configuration command. To remove a route from the routing table, use the no form of this command.

xns route network network.host
no xns route network network.host

Syntax Description

network

Network to which you want to establish a static route. This is a 32-bit decimal number. You can omit leading zeros.

network.host

Router to which to forward packets destined for the specified network.

The argument network is a 32-bit decimal number. You can omit leading zeros.

The argument host is the host number of the target router. This is a 48-bit value represented by a dotted triplet of four-digit hexadecimal numbers (xxxx.xxxx.xxxx).

Default

No static routes are added to the XNS routing table.

Command Mode

Global configuration

Usage Guidelines

This command first appeared in Cisco IOS Release 10.0.

The xns route command forwards packets destined for the specified network (network) to the specified router (network.host), regardless of whether that Cisco IOS software is sending dynamic routing information.

Static routes usually are not used in XNS environments, because nearly all XNS routers support dynamic routing via RIP. Dynamic routing is enabled by default in Cisco routers.

Be careful when assigning static routes. When links associated with static routes are lost, traffic may stop being forwarded, even though alternative paths might be available.

Example

In the following example, the router at address 21.0456.acd3.1243 handles all traffic destined for network 25:

xns routing
xns route 25 21.0456.acd3.1243

Related Commands

You can use the master indexes or search online for documentation of related commands.

show xns route

xns route-cache

To enable XNS fast switching, use the xns route-cache interface configuration command. To disable fast switching, use the no form of this command.

xns route-cache
no xns route-cache

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Default

Enabled

Command Mode

Interface configuration

Usage Guidelines

This command first appeared in Cisco IOS Release 10.0.

XNS fast switching allows higher throughput by switching packets using a cache created by previous transit packets.

You might want to disable fast switching in two situations. One is if you want to save memory on the interface cards; fast-switching caches require more memory than those used for standard switching. The second situation is to avoid congestion on interface cards when a high-bandwidth interface is writing large amounts of information to a low-bandwidth interface.

Example

The following example disables XNS fast switching for serial interface 1:

interface serial 1
  no xns route-cache

Related Commands

You can use the master indexes or search online for documentation of related commands.

show xns cache

xns router-filter

To control the routers from which packets are accepted, use the xns router-filter interface configuration command. To remove the filters from the interface, use the no form of this command.

xns router-filter access-list-number
no xns router-filter access-list-number

Syntax Description

access-list-number

Number of the access list. All incoming packets defined with either standard or extended access lists are filtered by the entries in this access list. For standard access lists, access-list-number is a decimal number from 400 to 499. For extended access lists, it is a decimal number from 500 to 599.

Default

No filters are applied to control the routers from which packets are accepted.

Command Mode

Interface configuration

Usage Guidelines

This command first appeared in Cisco IOS Release 10.0.

You can issue only one xns router-filter command on each interface.

Example

In the following example, access list 466 controls the routers from which packets are accepted. For serial interface 0, only packets from the router at 26.0000.00c0.047d are accepted. All other packets are implicitly denied.

access-list 466 permit 26.0000.00c0.047d
interface serial 0
  xns router-filter 466

Related Commands

You can use the master indexes or search online for documentation of related commands.

xns input-network-filter
xns output-network-filter

xns routing

To enable XNS routing, use the xns routing global configuration command. To disable XNS routing, use the no form of this command.

xns routing [address]
no xns routing

Syntax Description

address

(Optional) Host number of the router. This is a 48-bit value represented by a dotted triplet of four-digit hexadecimal numbers (xxxx.xxxx.xxxx). It must not be a multicast address.

If you omit address, the Cisco IOS software uses the address of the first IEEE-compliant (Token Ring, FDDI, or Ethernet) interface MAC address it finds in its interface list. The software uses the address 0123.4567.abcd for non-IEEE-compliant interfaces.

Default

Disabled

Command Mode

Global configuration

Usage Guidelines

This command first appeared in Cisco IOS Release 10.0.

The xns routing command enables the RIP service on the router.

Example

The following example enables XNS routing:

xns routing

Related Commands

You can use the master indexes or search online for documentation of related commands.

xns network

xns ub-emulation

To enable Ungermann-Bass Net/One routing, use the xns ub-emulation global configuration command. To disable Net/One routing and restore standard routing mode, use the no form of this command.

xns ub-emulation
no xns ub-emulation

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Default

Disabled

Command Mode

Global configuration

Usage Guidelines

This command first appeared in Cisco IOS Release 10.0.

The xns ub-emulation command enables Ungermann-Bass Net/One routing. This means that hello packets and routing updates on all XNS interfaces are sent out in Ungermann-Bass format.

Net/One is a distance-vector, or Bellman-Ford, protocol and is similar to standard XNS RIP. The major difference between the two protocols is in the metrics used. Standard XNS RIP uses a hop count to determine the best route to distant networks and maintains information only about hop counts. The Ungermann-Bass protocol uses a path-delay metric and maintains information about both hop counts and its own metrics.

Ungermann-Bass routers generate standard RIP updates by extracting the hop-count values from the Ungermann-Bass routing protocol. When configured in Ungermann-Bass emulation mode, routers participate in this protocol and behave (insofar as routing protocols are concerned) like Ungermann-Bass routers.

You can use the xns hear-rip command to configure the Cisco IOS software to listen to standard RIP updates when in Ungermann-Bass emulation mode. When Cisco routers in Ungermann-Bass emulation mode receives a RIP packet, each route in that packet is treated as though it had come from an Ungermann-Bass routing packet. The hop count used is the actual hop count from the RIP packet. The delay metric used is computed by assuming that each hop is the longest-delay link used by Ungermann-Bass, which is a 9.6-kbps serial link. Information from RIP packets is used in creating outgoing Ungermann-Bass updates, and vice versa.

This command is never written to nonvolatile configuration memory. Instead, the equivalent individual commands are written.These are an xns ub-emulation command for the router, and xns hear-rip, xns flood broadcast allnets, no  xns flood broadcast net-zero, and xns flood specific allnets commands for all interfaces on which XNS is enabled. The xns ub-routing command does not modify the encapsulation used on Token Ring interfaces.

Older versions of Cisco IOS software implemented a restricted version of the Ungermann-Bass routing protocol, and in certain configurations could create routing instability and forwarding loops. Before using Releases 8.3 and earlier in Ungermann-Bass environments, consult the 8.3 documentation for information about these restrictions.

Example

The following example enables Net/One routing:

xns routing
xns ub-emulation
interface tokenring 0
  xns network 23
  xns encapsulation ub

Related Commands

You can use the master indexes or search online for documentation of related commands.

xns hear-rip

xns update-time

To set the XNS routing update timers, use the xns update-time interface configuration command. To restore the default value, use the no form of this command.

xns update-time interval
no xns update-time

Syntax Description

interval

Interval, in seconds, at which XNS routing updates are sent. The minimum interval is 10 seconds, and the maximum is 2493644 seconds, which is about 29 days. The default is 30  seconds.

Default

30 seconds

Command Mode

Interface configuration

Usage Guidelines

This command first appeared in Cisco IOS Release 10.0.

The xns update-time command sets the routing update timer on a per-interface basis. To display the current value, use the show xns route command.

Routers exchange information about routes by sending broadcast messages when they are started up and shut down, and periodically while they are running. The xns update-time command enables you modify the periodic update interval.

You can set RIP timers only in a configuration in which all routers are Cisco routers. The timers should be the same for all devices connected to the network.

The update value you choose affects the internal XNS timers as follows:

This command has no effect on the Ungermann-Bass routing protocol.

Example

The following example sets the routing update time to 20 seconds:

interface ethernet 0
  xns network 20
  xns update-time 20

Related Commands

You can use the master indexes or search online for documentation of related commands.

show xns route


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