Полезная информация

cc/td/doc/product/software/ios120/12cgcr/fun_c
hometocprevnextglossaryfeedbacksearchhelp
PDF

Table of Contents

Loading and Maintaining System Images and Microcode

Loading and Maintaining System Images and Microcode

This chapter describes how to load and maintain system images and microcode. System images contain the system software. Microcode images contain microcode to be downloaded to various hardware devices.

To benefit most from the instructions and organization of this chapter, your router must contain a minimal configuration that allows you to interact with the system software. You can create a basic configuration file using the setup command facility. See the user guide for your hardware platform for more information on using setup at first-time startup. See the "Using Setup for Configuration Changes" chapter in this publication for information on using setup after first-time startup.

For a complete description of the system image and microcode commands mentioned in this chapter, refer to the "System Image and Microcode Commands" chapter in the Configuration Fundamentals Command Reference. To locate documentation of other commands that appear in this chapter, use the command reference master index or search online.


Note One or more of the commands that previously appeared in this chapter have been replaced by new commands. Table 14 maps the old commands to their replacements. The old commands continue to perform their normal functions in the current release, but support for these commands will cease in a future release.


Table 14: Mapping Old Commands to New Commands
Old Command New Command

copy erase flash

erase flash: (Class B Flash file systems only)

format (Class A and C Flash file systems only)

copy verify

copy verify flash

verify flash

verify

verify flash:

copy verify bootflash

verify bootflash

verify bootflash:

System Images and Microcode Task List

You can perform the tasks involving images described in the following sections:


Note These tasks assume you have a minimal configuration that you want to modify.

Display System Image Information

Use the following commands in EXEC mode to display information about system software:
Step Command Purpose

1 . 

show bootvar

List the contents of the BOOT environment variable, the name of the configuration file pointed to by the CONFIG_FILE environment variable, and the contents of the BOOTLDR environment variable.

2 . 

show flash-filesystem: [partition number] [all | chips | detailed | err | summary] (Class B Flash file systems)

show flash-filesystem: [all | chips | filesys] (Class A Flash file systems)

show flash-filesystem: (Class C Flash file systems)

List information about Flash memory.

3 . 

show microcode

Display microcode information.

4 . 

show version

List the system software release version, configuration register setting, and other information.

Refer to the Configuration Fundamentals Command Reference for examples of these commands.

Understand Images

System images contain the Cisco IOS software. Your router already has an image on it when you receive it. However, you may want to load a different image onto the router at some point. For example, you may wish to upgrade your software to the latest release or use the same version of the software for all the routers in a network.

Types of Images

The following are two main types of images your router may use:

On most platforms, the image is located in Flash memory. On platforms with multiple Flash memory file systems (Flash, Bootflash, slot 0, or slot 1), the image can be located in any existing Flash file system. Use the show file systems command to determine which file systems your router supports. Refer to your hardware documentation for information about where these images are located by default.
On some platforms, the boot image is contained in ROM. In others, the boot image can be stored in Flash memory. On these platforms, you can specify which image should be used as the boot image using the boot bootldr command.
Refer to your hardware documentation for information about the boot image used on your router.

Image Naming Conventions

You can identify the platform, features, and image location by the name of the image. The naming convention for images that are stored on a UNIX system is as follows:

platform-features-type

The platform variable indicates which platforms can use this image. Examples of platform variables are rsp (Cisco  7000 series with RSP7000 and Cisco  7500 series), c1600 (Cisco  1600 series), and c1005 (Cisco  1005).

The feature variable identifies the feature sets supported by the image.

The type field can contain the following characters:

Copy Operation General Output Conventions

During a copy operation, you may get the following characters:

The last line in the output indicates whether or not the copy was successful.

To interrupt a copy operation, press Ctrl-^ or Ctrl-Shift-6. The operation terminates, but any partial file copied remains until Flash memory is erased.

Refer to the Internetwork Troubleshooting Guide publication for procedures on how to resolve Flash memory problems.

Copy Images from Flash Memory to a Network Server

You can copy system images from Flash memory to an FTP, rcp, or TFTP server. You can use this server copy of the system image as a backup copy, or you can use it to verify that the copy in Flash is the same as the original file on disk. The following sections describe these tasks:

The protocol you use depends on which type of server you are using. The FTP and rcp transport mechanisms provide faster performance and more reliable delivery of data than TFTP. These improvements are possible because the FTP and rcp transport mechanisms are built on and use the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) stack, which is connection-oriented.

To stop the copy process, press Ctrl-^ or Ctrl-Shift-6.

In the output, an exclamation point (!) indicates that the copy process is taking place. Each exclamation point (!) indicates that ten packets have been transferred successfully.

Refer to the Internetwork Troubleshooting Guide publication for procedures on how to resolve Flash memory problems.

Copy an Image from Flash Memory to a TFTP Server

You can copy a system image to a TFTP network server. In some implementations of TFTP, you must first create a "dummy" file on the TFTP server and give it read, write, and execute permissions before copying a file over it. Refer to your TFTP documentation for more information.

To copy a system image to a TFTP network server, use the following commands in EXEC mode:
Step Command Purpose

1 . 

show flash-filesystem:

(Optional) Learn the exact spelling of the system image filename in Flash memory.

2 . 

copy flash-url tftp:[[[//location]/directory]/filename]

Copy the system image from Flash memory to a TFTP server.

3 . 

Reply to any router prompts for additional information or confirmation. The prompting will depending on how much information you provide in the copy command and the current setting of the file prompt command.

Copy from Flash Memory to a TFTP Server Example

The following example uses the show flash: command to learn the name of the system image file and the copy flash: tftp: command to copy the system image to a TFTP server.

RouterB# show flash:
 
System flash directory:
File  Length   Name/status
  1   4137888  c3640-c2is-mz.Feb24
[4137952 bytes used, 12639264 available, 16777216 total]
16384K bytes of processor board System flash (Read/Write)\
Router# copy flash: tftp:
IP address of remote host [255.255.255.255]? 172.16.13.110
filename to write on tftp host? c3640-c2is-mz.Feb24
writing c3640-c2is-mz.Feb24  !!!!...
successful tftp write.
Copy from Partitioned Flash Memory to a TFTP Server Example

In this example, the file your-ios is copied from partition 1 of the Flash memory PC card in slot 0 to the TFTP server at 172.23.1.129. The file will be saved with the name your-ios in the dirt/sysadmin directory relative to the directory of the remote username.

Router# copy slot0:1:your-ios tftp://172.23.1.129/dirt/sysadmin/your-ios
Verifying checksum for 'your-ios' (file # 1)...  OK
Copy 'your-ios' from Flash to server
  as 'dirt/sysadmin/ios-2'? [yes/no] yes
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Upload to server done
Flash device copy took 00:00:23 [hh:mm:ss]

Copy an Image from Flash Memory to an rcp Server

You can copy a system image from Flash memory to an rcp network server.

If you copy the configuration file to a personal computer used as a file server, the computer must support rsh.

Understand the rcp Username

The rcp protocol requires a client to send a remote username on each rcp request to a server. When you copy an image from the router to a server using rcp, the Cisco  IOS software sends the first valid username in the following list:

    1. The remote username specified in the copy command, if one if specified.

    2. The username set by the ip rcmd remote-username command, if the command is configured.

    3. The remote username associated with the current TTY (terminal) process. For example, if the user is connected to the router through Telnet and was authenticated through the username command, the router software sends the Telnet username as the remote username.

    4. The router host name.

For the rcp copy request to execute successfully, an account must be defined on the network server for the remote username. If the server has a directory structure, the configuration file or image is written or copied relative to the directory associated with the remote username on the server. The path for all files and images to be copied begins at the remote user's home directory. For example, if the system image resides in the home directory of a user on the server, specify that user's name as the remote username.

If you are writing to the server, the rcp server must be properly configured to accept the rcp write request from the user on the router. For UNIX systems, you must add an entry to the .rhosts file for the remote user on the rcp server. For example, suppose the router contains the following configuration lines:

hostname Rtr1
ip rcmd remote-username User0

If the router's IP address translates to Router1.domain.com, then the .rhosts file for User0 on the rcp server should contain the following line:

Router1.domain.com Rtr1

Refer to the documentation for your rcp server for more details.

Copy from Flash Memory to an rcp Server Tasks

To copy the system image from Flash memory to a network server, use the following commands:
Step Command Purpose

1 . 

show flash-filesystem:

Learn the exact spelling of the system image filename in Flash memory.

2 . 

configure terminal

(Optional) Enter configuration mode from the terminal. This step is required only if you want to change the default remote username (see Step 3).

3 . 

ip rcmd remote-username username

(Optional) Configure the remote username.

4 . 

end

(Optional) Exit configuration mode. This step is required only if you want to change the default remote username (see Step 3).

5 . 

copy flash-url rcp:[[[//[username@]location]/directory]/filename]

Copy the system image from Flash memory to a network server using rcp.

6 . 

Reply to any router prompts for additional information or confirmation. The prompting will depending on how much information you provide in the copy command and the current setting of the file prompt command.

Copy from Flash to RCP Server Example

The following example copies the system image c5200-ds-l to the network server at 172.16.1.111 using rcp and a username of netadmin:

Router# copy flash:c5200-ds-l rcp:netadmin1@172.16.1.111/c5200-ds-l
Verifying checksum for `c5200-ds-l' (file # 1)...[OK] 
Writing c5200-ds-l -
Copy from Slot1 to RCP Server Example

The following example copies a system image file called test from the second PCMCIA slot to a network server using rcp. The remote username is netadmin1. Because the destination address and filename are not specified, the router prompts for this information.

Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# ip rcmd remote-username netadmin1
Router(config)# end
Router# copy slot1:test rcp:
Address or name of remote host [UNKNOWN]? 172.16.1.111
File name to write to? test
Verifying checksum for `test' (file # 1)...[OK] 
Writing test
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Upload to server done
Flash device copy took 00:00:08 [hh:mm:ss]

Copy an Image from Flash Memory to an FTP Server

You can copy a system image to an FTP network server.

Understand the FTP Username and Password

The FTP protocol requires a client to send a remote username and password on each FTP request to a server. When you copy a configuration file from the router to a server using FTP, the Cisco  IOS software sends the first valid username in the following list:

    1. The username specified in the copy command, if a username is specified.

    2. The username set by the ip ftp username command, if the command is configured.

    3. Anonymous.

The router sends the first valid password in the following list:

    1. The password specified in the copy command, if a password is specified.

    2. The password set by the ip ftp password command, if the command is configured.

    3. The router forms a password username@routername.domain. The variable username is the username associated with the current session, routername is the configured host name, and domain is the domain of the router.

The username and password must be associated with an account on the FTP server. If you are writing to the server, the FTP server must be properly configured to accept the FTP write request from the user on the router.

If the server has a directory structure, the configuration file or image is written to or copied from the directory associated with the username on the server. For example, if the system image resides in the home directory of a user on the server, specify that user's name as the remote username.

Refer to the documentation for your FTP server for more details.

Use the ip ftp username and ip ftp password commands to specify a username and password for all copies. Include the username in the copy command if you want to specify a username for that copy operation only.

Copy from Flash Memory to an FTP Server Tasks

To copy a system image to an FTP network server, use the following commands in EXEC mode:
Step Command Purpose

1 . 

configure terminal

(Optional) Enter configuration mode from the terminal. This step is required only if you override the default remote username or password (see Steps 2 and 3).

2 . 

ip ftp username username

(Optional) Change the default remote username.

3 . 

ip ftp password password

(Optional) Change the default password.

4 . 

end

(Optional) Exit configuration mode. This step is required only if you override the default remote username or password (see Steps 2 and 3).

5 . 

show flash-filesystem:

(Optional) If you do not already know it, learn the exact spelling of the system image filename in Flash memory.

6 . 

copy flash-filesystem:filename ftp:[[[//[username
[:password]@]location]/directory]/filename]

Copy the image to the FTP server.

7 . 

Reply to any router prompts for additional information or confirmation. The prompting will depending on how much information you provide in the copy command and the current setting of the file prompt command.

Copy from Flash Memory to an FTP Server Example

The following example uses the show flash: command to learn the name of the system image file and the copy flash: tftp: command to copy the system image (c3640-2is-mz) to a TFTP server. The router uses the default username and password.

Router# show flash:
 
System flash directory:
File  Length   Name/status
  1   4137888  c3640-c2is-mz
[4137952 bytes used, 12639264 available, 16777216 total]
16384K bytes of processor board System flash (Read/Write)\
Router# copy flash: tftp:
IP address of remote host [255.255.255.255]? 172.16.13.110
filename to write on tftp host? c3600-c2is-mz
writing c3640-c2is-mz  !!!!...
successful ftp write.
Copy from Slot1 to an FTP Server Example

The following example uses the show slot1: command to display the name of the system image file in the second PCMCIA slot and the copies the file (test) to an FTP server.

Router# show slot1:
-#- ED --type-- --crc--- -seek-- nlen -length- -----date/time------ name
1      .. 1        46A11866 2036C   4    746      May 16 1995 16:24:37 test
Router# copy slot1:test ftp://thisuser:thatpass@172.16.13.110/test
writing test!!!!...
successful ftp write.
Copy from Partitioned Flash to an FTP Server Example

In this example, the file your-ios is copied from partition 1 of the Flash memory PC card in slot 0 to the TFTP server at 172.23.1.129. The file will be saved with the name your-ios in the dirt/sysadmin directory relative to the directory of the remote username.

Router#show slot0: partition 1
PCMCIA Slot0 flash directory, partition 1:
File  Length   Name/status
  1   1711088 your-ios 
[1711152 bytes used, 2483152 available, 4194304 total]
Router# copy slot0:1:your-ios 
ftp://myuser:mypass@172.23.1.129/dirt/sysadmin/your-ios
Verifying checksum for 'your-ios' (file # 1)...  OK
Copy 'your-ios' from Flash to server
  as 'dirt/sysadmin/ios-2'? [yes/no] yes
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Upload to server done
Flash device copy took 00:00:23 [hh:mm:ss]

Copy Images from a Network Server to Flash Memory

You can copy system images or boot image from a TFTP, rcp, or FTP server to a Flash memory file system to upgrade or change the Cisco IOS software or boot image on your router.

The protocol you use depends on which type of server you are using. The FTP and rcp transport mechanisms provide faster performance and more reliable delivery of data than TFTP. These improvements are possible because the FTP and rcp transport mechanisms are built on and use the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) stack, which is connection-oriented.

The following sections describe the copying tasks. The first two tasks and the last task are required. If you have a run-from-Flash system, the third section is required. Perform one of the remaining tasks, depending on which file transfer protocol you use.


Note When you are upgrading or changing to a different Cisco  IOS release, refer to the appropriate release notes for information on system requirements and limitations.

Restrictions on File Naming

Filenames in Flash memory can be up to 63 characters long; they are not case-sensitive and are always converted to lowercase.


Note The destination filename must be an alphanumeric expression. For example, the filename 1 is invalid.

The filename can be in either lowercase or uppercase; the system ignores case. If more than one file of the same name is copied to Flash, regardless of case, the last file copied becomes the valid file.

Understand Flash Memory Space Considerations

Be sure there is enough space available before copying a file to Flash memory. Use the show  flash-filesystem: command, and compare the size of the file you want to copy to the amount of Flash memory available. If the space available is less than the amount needed, the copy command is partially executed, but the entire file is not copied into Flash memory. The failure message "buffer overflow - xxxx/xxxx" appears, where xxxx/xxxx is the number of bytes read from the source file and the number of bytes available on the destination device.

Caution Do not reboot the router if there is no valid image in Flash memory.

Note For the Cisco  3600 series, if you do not have access to a network server and need to download a system image, you can copy an image from a local or remote computer (such as a PC, UNIX workstation, or Macintosh) using the Xmodem or Ymodem protocols. See the section
"Recovering a System Image Using Xmodem or Ymodem" later in this chapter.

On Cisco 2500, Cisco 3000, and Cisco 4000 systems, if the file being downloaded to Flash memory is an uncompressed system image, the copy command automatically determines the size of the file being downloaded and validates it with the space available in Flash memory.

On Class B Flash file systems, the router gives you the option of erasing the existing contents of Flash memory before writing to it. If there is no free Flash memory available, or if no files have ever been written to Flash memory, the erase routine is required before new files can be copied. If there is enough free Flash memory, the router gives you the option of erasing the existing Flash memory before writing to it. The system will inform you of these conditions and prompt you for a response.


Note If you enter n after the "Erase flash before writing?" prompt, the copy process continues. If you enter y and confirm the erasure, the erase routine begins. Be sure to have ample Flash memory space before entering n at the erasure prompt.

If you attempt to copy a file into Flash memory that is already there, a prompt informs you that a file with the same name already exists. This file is "deleted" when you copy the new file into Flash.

You can copy normal or compressed images to Flash memory. You can produce a compressed system image on any UNIX platform using the compress command. Refer to your UNIX platform's documentation for the exact usage of the compress command.

On some platforms, the Flash security jumper must be installed in order to write to Flash memory. In addition, some platforms have a write protect switch which must be set to unprotected in order to write to Flash memory.

Output for Image Downloading Process

The output and dialogue may vary depending on the platform.

Output for Partitioned Flash Memory

One of the following prompts displayed after the command indicates how the file can be downloaded:

If the file can be downloaded into more than one partition, you are prompted for the partition number. To obtain help, enter any of the following at the partition number prompt:

Copy to Flash Memory Tasks for Run-from-Flash Systems

You cannot run the system from Flash memory and copy to it at the same time. Therefore, for systems that run from Flash, do one of the following before copying to Flash:

Refer to "Compare Types of Memory" section in the "Maintaining Router Memory" chapter of the Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide for more information on run-from-Flash systems.

Refer to the appropriate hardware installation and maintenance publication for information about the jumper settings required for your configuration.

Copy an Image from a TFTP Server to a Flash Memory File System

To copy a system image from a Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) server to a Flash memory file system, use the following commands in EXEC mode:
Step Command Purpose

1 . 

See the instructions in the section "Copy Images from Flash Memory to a Network Server."

Make a backup copy of the current software image or bootstrap image.

2 . 

copy tftp:[[[//location]/directory]/filename] flash-filesystem:[filename]

Copy a system image or a boot image to Flash memory.

3 . 

Reply to any router prompts for additional information or confirmation. The prompting will depending on how much information you provide in the copy command and the current setting of the file prompt command.

Copy from a TFTP Server to Flash Memory Example

In the following example, a file is copied from a TFTP server to slot1:

Router# copy tftp://theserver/tftpboot/kristen/ken/c7200-js-mz slot1:
Destination filename [c7200-js-mz]?
Accessing tftp://theserver/tftpboot/kristen/ken/c7200-js-mz...Translating 
"theserver"...domain server (192.168.2.132) [OK]
 
Loading tftpboot/kristen/ken/c7200-js-mz from 192.168.2.132 (via Ethernet3/0): 
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
[OK - 4823492/9646080 bytes]
 
4823492 bytes copied in 264.312 secs (18270 bytes/sec)

The following example copies a system image named igs-p-l from a TFTP server to a Class B Flash file system when Flash memory is too full to copy the file.

Router# copy tftp: flash:
IP address or name of remote host [255.255.255.255]? dirt
Translating "DIRT"...domain server (255.255.255.255) [OK]
Name of file to copy? igs-p-l
Copy igs-p-l from 172.16.13.111 into flash memory? [confirm]
Flash is filled to capacity.
Erasure is needed before flash may be written.
Erase flash before writing? [confirm]
Erasing flash EPROMs bank 0
Zeroing bank...zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz
Verify zeroed...vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv
Erasing bank...eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee
Erasing flash EPROMs bank 1
Zeroing bank...zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz
Verify zeroed...vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv
Erasing bank...eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee
Erasing flash EPROMs bank 2
Zeroing bank...zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz
Verify zeroed...vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv
Erasing bank...eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee
Erasing flash EPROMs bank 3
Zeroing bank...zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz
Verify zeroed...vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv
Erasing bank...eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee
Loading from 172.16.1.111:!!!!...
 [OK - 1906676/4194240 bytes]
Verifying via checksum...
vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv
vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv
vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv
vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv
vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv
Flash verification successful. Length = 1906676, checksum = 0x12AD
Copy from a TFTP Server to Flash Example When File by the Same Name Already Exists

The following example shows how to copy a system image named igs-p-l into the current Flash configuration in which a file named igs-p-l already exists:

Router# copy tftp://172.16.13.111/igs-p-l flash:igs-p-l
File igs-p-l already exists; it will be invalidated!
Copy igs-p-l from 172.16.13.111 into flash memory? [confirm]
2287500 bytes available for writing without erasure.
Erase flash before writing? [confirm]n
Loading from 172.16.1.111:!!!!...
[OK - 1906676/2287500 bytes]
Verifying via checksum...
vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv
vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv
vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv
vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv
vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv
Flash verification successful. Length = 1902192, checksum = 0x12AD
Copy from TFTP Server to Flash Example without Security Jumper Installed

In the following example, the Flash security jumper is not installed, so you cannot write files to Flash memory.

Router# copy tftp: flash:
Flash: embedded flash security jumper(12V)
       must be strapped to modify flash memory
Copy from TFTP Server to Partitioned Flash Example

In the following example, the file c3600-i-mz on the TFTP server at 172.23.1.129 is copied to the first partition of internal Flash Memory.

Router# copy tftp://172.23.1.129/c3600-i-mz flash:1:c3600-i-mz/c3600-i-mz
Accessing file 'c3600-i-mz' on 172.23.1.129...
Loading c3600-i-mz from 172.23.1.129 (via Ethernet1/0): ! [OK]
Erase flash device before writing? [confirm]
Flash contains files. Are you sure you want to erase? [confirm]
Copy 'c3600-i-mz' from server
  as 'c3600-i-mz' into Flash WITH erase? [yes/no] yes
Erasing device... eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ...erased
Loading c3600-i-mz from 172.23.1.129 (via Ethernet1/0): 
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
[OK - 1711088/4194304 bytes]
Verifying checksum...  OK (0xF89A)
Flash device copy took 00:00:17 [hh:mm:ss]

Copy an Image from an rcp Server to a Flash Memory File System

You can copy a system image from an rcp network server to a Flash memory file system.

If you copy the configuration file to a personal computer used as a file server, the computer must support rsh.

Understand the rcp Username

The rcp protocol requires a client to send a remote username on each rcp request to a server. When you copy an image from the router to a server using rcp, the Cisco  IOS software sends the first valid username in the following list:

    1. The remote username specified in the copy command, if one if specified.

    2. The username set by the ip rcmd remote-username command, if the command is configured.

    3. The remote username associated with the current TTY (terminal) process. For example, if the user is connected to the router through Telnet and was authenticated through the username command, the router software sends the Telnet username as the remote username.

    4. The router host name.

For the rcp copy request to execute successfully, an account must be defined on the network server for the remote username. If the server has a directory structure, the configuration file or image is written or copied relative to the directory associated with the remote username on the server. The path for all files and images to be copied begins at the remote user's home directory. For example, if the system image resides in the home directory of a user on the server, specify that user's name as the remote username.

Copy from an rcp Server to Flash Memory Tasks

To copy an image from an rcp server to Flash memory, use the following commands, beginning in privileged EXEC mode:
Step Command Purpose

1 . 

See the instructions in the section "Copy Images from Flash Memory to a Network Server."

Make a backup copy of the current system or bootstrap software image.

2 . 

configure terminal

(Optional) Enter configuration mode from the terminal. This step is required only if you override the default remote username (see Step 3).

3 . 

ip rcmd remote-username username

(Optional) Specify the remote username.

4 . 

end

(Optional) Exit configuration mode. This step is required only if you override the default remote username (see Step 3).

5 . 

copy rcp:[[[//[username@]location]/directory]
/filename] flash-filesystem:[filename]

Copy the image from an rcp server to a Flash memory file system.

6 . 

Reply to any router prompts for additional information or confirmation. The prompting will depending on how much information you provide in the copy command and the current setting of the file prompt command.

Copy from an rcp Server to Flash Example

The following example copies a system image named mysysim1 from the netadmin1 directory on the remote server named SERVER1.CISCO.COM with an IP address of 172.16.101.101 to Flash memory. To ensure that enough Flash memory is available to accommodate the system image to be copied, the Cisco IOS software allows you to erase the contents of Flash memory first.

Router1# configure terminal
Router1(config)# ip rcmd remote-username netadmin1
Router1(config)# end
Router# copy rcp: flash:
 
System flash directory:
File name/status
      1 mysysim1
[2076072 bytes used, 21080 bytes available]
Address or name of remote host[UNKNOWN]? 172.16.101.101
Name of file to copy? mysysim1
Copy mysysim1 from SERVER1.CISCO.COM?[confirm]

Checking for file `mysysim1' on SERVER1.CISCO.COM...[OK] Erase Flash device before writing?[confirm] Are you sure?[confirm] Erasing device...ezeeze...erased. Connected to 172.16.101.101
Loading 2076007 byte file mysysim1:!!!!...
[OK]
Verifying checksum... (0x87FD)...[OK] 
Copy from an rcp Server to Partitioned Slot0

In the following example, the file /tftpboot/gate/c3600-i-mz on the rcp server at 172.23.1.129 is copied to partition 3 in slot 0. Because no username is specified, the router uses the default rcp remote username.

Router# show slot0: partition 3
PCMCIA Slot0 flash directory, partition 3:
File  Length   Name/status
  1   426      running-config  
[492 bytes used, 4193812 available, 4194304 total]
Router# copy rcp://172.23.1.129/tftpboot/gate/c3600-i-mz 
slot0:3:/tftpboot/gate/c3600-i-mz
Accessing file '/tftpboot/gate/c3600-i-mz' on 172.23.1.129...
Connected to 172.23.1.129
Loading 1711088 byte file c3600-i-mz: ! [OK]
Erase flash device before writing? [confirm]
Flash contains files. Are you sure you want to erase? [confirm]
Copy '/tftpboot/gate/c3600-i-mz' from server
  as '/tftpboot/gate/c3600-i-mz' into Flash WITH erase? [yes/no] yes
Erasing device... eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ...erased
Connected to 172.23.1.129
Loading 1711088 byte file c3600-i-mz: 
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! [OK]
Verifying checksum...  OK (0xF89A)
Flash device copy took 00:00:16 [hh:mm:ss]

Copy an Image from an FTP Server to a Flash Memory File System

You can copy a system image from an FTP server to a Flash memory file system.

Understand the FTP Username and Password

The FTP protocol requires a client to send a remote username and password on each FTP request to a server. When you copy a configuration file from the router to a server using FTP, the Cisco  IOS software sends the first valid username in the following list:

    1. The username specified in the copy command, if a username is specified.

    2. The username set by the ip ftp username command, if the command is configured.

    3. Anonymous.

The router sends the first valid password in the following list:

    1. The password specified in the copy command, if a password is specified.

    2. The password set by the ip ftp password command, if the command is configured.

    3. The router forms a password username@routername.domain. The variable username is the username associated with the current session, routername is the configured host name, and domain is the domain of the router.

The username and password must be associated with an account on the FTP server. If you are writing to the server, the FTP server must be properly configured to accept the FTP write request from the user on the router.

If the server has a directory structure, the configuration file or image is written to or copied from the directory associated with the username on the server. For example, if the system image resides in the home directory of a user on the server, specify that user's name as the remote username.

Refer to the documentation for your FTP server for more details.

Use the ip ftp username and ip ftp password commands to specify a username and password for all copies. Include the username in the copy command if you want to specify a username for that copy operation only.

Copy from an FTP Server to Flash Memory Tasks

To copy a system image from an FTP server to a Flash memory file system, use the following commands in EXEC mode:
Step Command Purpose

1 . 

See the instructions in the section "Copy Images from Flash Memory to a Network Server."

Make a backup copy of the current software image or bootstrap image.

2 . 

configure terminal

(Optional) Enter configuration mode from the terminal. This step is required only if you override the default remote username or password (see Steps 3 and 4).

3 . 

ip ftp username username

(Optional) Change the default remote username.

4 . 

ip ftp password password

(Optional) Change the default password.

5 . 

end

(Optional) Exit configuration mode. This step is required only if you override the default remote username or password (see Steps 3 and 4).

6 . 

copy ftp:[[[//[username[:password]@]location]
/directory]/filename] flash-filesystem:[filename]

Using rcp, copy the configuration file from a network server to running memory or the startup configuration.

7 . 

Reply to any router prompts for additional information or confirmation. The prompting will depending on how much information you provide in the copy command and the current setting of the file prompt command.

Copy from FTP Server to Flash Memory Example

The following example copies a the file c7200-js-mz from the FTP server the server using a username of myuser and a password of mypass:

Router# copy ftp://myuser:mypass@theserver/tftpboot/ken/c7200-js-mz 
slot1:c7200-js-mz
Accessing ftp://theserver/tftpboot/ken/c7200-js-mz...Translating "theserver"...domain 
server (192.168.2.132) [OK]
 
Loading c7200-js-mz from 192.168.2.132 (via Ethernet3/0): 
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
[OK - 4823492/9646080 bytes]
 
4823492 bytes copied in 264.312 secs (18270 bytes/sec)

Verify the Image in Flash Memory

Before booting from Flash memory, verify that the checksum of the image in Flash memory matches the checksum listed in the README file that was distributed with the system software image by using the verify command. The checksum of the image in Flash memory is displayed at the bottom of the screen when you issue the copy command to copy an image. The README file was copied to the network server automatically when you installed the system software image on the server.

Caution If the checksum value does not match the value in the README file, do not reboot the router. Instead, issue the copy command and compare the checksums again. If the checksum is repeatedly wrong, copy the original system software image back into Flash memory before you reboot the router from Flash memory. If you have a corrupted image in Flash memory and try to boot from Flash, the router will start the system image contained in ROM (assuming that booting from a network server is not configured). If ROM does not contain a fully functional system image, the router will not function and must be reconfigured through a direct console port connection.

The Flash memory content listing does not include the checksum of individual files. To recompute and verify the image checksum after an image is copied into Flash memory or a Flash memory device, use the following EXEC mode command:
Command Purpose

verify flash-filesystem:[partition-number:][filename]

Recompute and verify the image checksum after the image is copied into Flash memory.

If you do not provide the filename in the command, the router prompts you. By default, it prompts for the last (most recent) file in Flash. Press Return to recompute the default file checksum, or enter the filename of a different file at the prompt. Note that the checksum for microcode images is always 0x0000.

The following example verifies the image c7200-js-mz in slot0:

Router# verify slot0:c7200-js-mz
Verified slot0:c7200-js-mz

Copy Images between Local Flash Memory Devices

On routers will multiple Flash memory file systems, you can copy images from one Flash memory file system, such as internal Flash memory or a Flash memory card in a PCMCIA slot, to another Flash memory file system, as shown in Figure 11. One reason to copy the image to a different flash device is to make a backup copy of it.


Figure 11: Copying Images
between Flash Memory File Systems

To copy an image between Flash memory file systems, use these commands in EXEC mode:
Step Command Purpose

1 . 

show flash-filesystem:

Display the layout and contents of Flash memory.

2 . 

copy source-url destination-url

Copy an image between Flash memory devices.

3 . 

verify flash-filesystem:filename

Verify the checksum of the image you copied.


Note The source device and the destination device cannot be the same. For example, the command copy slot1: slot1: is invalid.
Copy a File between Local Flash Memory Devices Example

The following example copies the file admin/images/new-ios from partition 1 of internal Flash memory to slot 0:

Router# show flash: partition 1
System flash directory, partition 1:
File  Length   Name/status
  1   3142748 admin/images/new-ios
[3142812 bytes used, 1051492 available, 4194304 total]
Router# show slot0:
PCMCIA Slot0 flash directory
File  Length   Name/status
  1   1711088  /tftpboot/gate/c3600-i-mz 
[1711152 bytes used, 2483152 available, 4194304 total]
Router# copy flash:1:admin/images/new-ios slot0:admin/images/new-ios
Verifying checksum for 'admin/images/new-ios' (file # 1)...  OK
Erase flash device before writing? [confirm]
Flash contains files. Are you sure you want to erase? [confirm]
Copy 'admin/images/new-ios' from flash: device
  as 'admin/images/new-ios' into slot0: device WITH erase? [yes/no] yes
Erasing device... eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ...erased
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
 [OK - 3142748/4194304 bytes]
Flash device copy took 00:00:50 [hh:mm:ss]
Verifying checksum...  OK (0xB732)
Router# show slot0:
PCMCIA Slot0 flash directory
File  Length   Name/status
  1   3142748 admin/images/new-ios
[3142812 bytes used, 1051492 available, 4194304 total]

Specify the Startup System Image in the Configuration File

You can enter multiple boot commands in the startup configuration file or in the BOOT environment variable to provide backup methods for loading a system image onto the router. The following are three ways to load a system image:


Note Some platforms, such as the Cisco 7000 family, cannot boot from ROM.

You can enter the different types of boot commands in any order in the startup configuration file or in the BOOT environment variable. If you enter multiple boot commands, the Cisco IOS software tries them in the order they are entered.


Note Booting from ROM is faster than booting from Flash memory. However, booting from Flash memory is faster and more reliable than booting from a network server.

Load the System Image from Flash Memory

Use the following sections to configure your router to boot from Flash memory. Flash memory can reduce the effects of network failure by reducing dependency on files that can only be accessed over the network.

Flash Memory Configuration Process

To configure the router to load a system image in Flash memory, perform the following steps:

Step Task

1 . 

(Optional) Copy a system image or boot image to Flash memory using TFTP, rcp, and FTP. See the "Copy Images from a Network Server to Flash Memory" section for more information on performing this step.

2 . 

Configure the system to automatically boot from the desired file and location in Flash memory or bootflash memory. See the "Configure the Router to Automatically Boot from an Image in Flash Memory" section.

3 . 

(Optional) Depending on the current configuration register setting, you may need to change the configuration register value. See the "Configure the Router to Automatically Boot from an Image in Flash Memory" section for more information on modifying the configuration register.

4 . 

(Optional) For some platforms, to change the location of the boot image, set the BOOTLDR environment variable.

5 . 

Save your configurations.

6 . 

Power-cycle and reboot your system to ensure that all is working as expected.

Configure the Router to Automatically Boot from an Image in Flash Memory

To configure a router to automatically boot from an image in Flash memory, use the following commands beginning in EXEC mode:
Step Command Purpose

1 . 

configure terminal

Enter configuration mode from the terminal.

2 . 

boot system flash [flash-filesystem:] [partition-number:] filename

Enter the filename of an image stored in Flash memory.

3 . 

config-register value

Set the configuration register to enable loading of the system image specified in the configuration file.

4 . 

end

Exit configuration mode.

5 . 

copy system:running-config nvram:startup-config

Save the configuration file to your startup configuration.

6 . 

more nvram:startup-config

(Optional) Verify the contents of the startup configuration.

7 . 

reload

Power-cycle and reboot the system to ensure that all works as expected.

For routers which are partitioned, if you do not specify a partition, the router boots from the first partition. If you do not specify a filename, the router boots from the first valid image found in the partition.

If you enter more than one image filename, the router tries them in the order entered.

To remove a filename from the configuration file, enter the no boot  system  flash command and specify the file location.


Note The no boot system configuration command disables all boot system configuration commands regardless of argument. Specifying the flash keyword or the filename argument with the no boot system command disables only the commands specified by these arguments.

The following example shows how to configure the router to automatically boot from an image in Flash memory:

Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# boot system flash gsnew-image
Router(config)# config-register 0x010F
Router(config)# end
Router# copy system:running-config nvram:startup-config
[ok]
Router# reload
[confirm]
%SYS-5-RELOAD: Reload requested
System Bootstrap, Version 4.6(0.16), BETA SOFTWARE
Copyright (c) 1986-1995 by cisco Systems
RP1 processor with 16384 Kbytes of memory
F3: 1871404+45476+167028 at 0x1000
Booting gsnew-image from flash memory RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR [OK - 1916912/13767448 bytes]
F3: 1871404+45476+167028 at 0x1000
              Restricted Rights Legend
Use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is
subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraph
(c) of the Commercial Computer Software - Restricted
Rights clause at FAR sec. 52.227-19 and subparagraph
(c) (1) (ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer
Software clause at DFARS sec. 252.227-7013.
cisco Systems, Inc.
              170 West Tasman Drive
              San Jose, California 95134
GS Software (GS7), Version 10.2, 
Copyright (c) 1986-1995 by cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Thu 05-Nov-94 14:16 by mlw

Load the System Image from a Network Server

You can configure the Cisco IOS software to load a system image file from a network server using FTP, TFTP, rcp, or MOP.

If you do not boot from a network server using MOP and you do not specify either FTP, TFTP, or rcp, by default the system image that you specify is booted from a network server via TFTP.


Note If you are using a Sun workstation as a network server and TFTP to transfer the file, set up the workstation to enable verification and generation of User Datagram Protocol (UDP) checksums. See the Sun documentation for details.

For increased performance and reliability, use rcp to boot a system image from a network server. The rcp implementation uses the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), which ensures reliable delivery of data.

You cannot explicitly specify a remote username when you issue the boot command. Instead, the host name of the router is used. If the remote server has a directory structure, as do UNIX systems, and you boot the router from a network server using rcp, the Cisco IOS software searches for the system image on the server relative to the directory of the remote username.

You can also boot from a compressed image on a network server. One reason to use a compressed image is to ensure that there is enough memory available for storage. On routers that do not contain a run-from-ROM image in EPROM, when the router boots software from a network server, the image being booted and the running image both must fit into memory. If the running image is large, there might not be room in memory for the image being booted from the network server.

If there is not enough room in memory to boot a regular image from a network server, you can produce a compressed software image on any UNIX platform using the compress command. Refer to your UNIX platform's documentation for the exact usage of the compress command.

To specify the loading of a system image from a network server, use the following commands beginning in EXEC mode:
Step Command Purpose

1 . 

configure terminal

Enter configuration mode from the terminal.

2 . 

boot system [rcp | tftp] filename [ip-address]

boot system mop filename [mac-address] [interface]

Specify the system image file to be booted from a network server using rcp, TFTP, or MOP.

3 . 

config-register value

Set the configuration register to enable loading of the image specified in the configuration file.

4 . 

end

Exit configuration mode.

5 . 

copy system:running-config nvram:startup-config

Save the configuration file to your startup configuration.

In the following example, a router uses rcp to boot from the testme5.tester system image file on a network server at IP address 172.16.0.1:

Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# boot system rcp testme5.tester 172.16.0.1
Router(config)# config-register 0x010F
Router(config)# end
Router# copy system:running-config nvram:startup-config

Load the System Image from ROM

To specify the use of the ROM system image as a backup to other boot instructions in the configuration file, use the following commands beginning in EXEC mode:
Step Command Purpose

1 . 

configure terminal

Enter configuration mode from the terminal.

2 . 

boot system rom

Specify use of the ROM system image as a backup image.

3 . 

config-register value

Set the configuration register to enable loading of the system image specified in the configuration file.

4 . 

end

Exit configuration mode.

5 . 

copy system:running-config nvram:startup-config

Save the configuration file to your startup configuration.

In the following example, a router is configured to boot from ROM:

Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# boot system rom 
Router(config)# config-register 0x010F
Router(config)# end
Router# copy system:running-config nvram:startup-config

Note The Cisco 7000 family products cannot load from ROM.

Use a Fault-Tolerant Booting Strategy

Occasionally network failures make booting from a network server impossible. To lessen the effects of network failure, consider the following booting strategy. After Flash is installed and configured, you might want to configure the router to boot in the following order:

    1. Boot an image from Flash.

    2. Boot an image from a network server.

    3. Boot from ROM image.

This boot order provides the most fault-tolerant booting strategy. Use the following commands beginning in EXEC mode to allow the router to boot first from Flash, then from a system file from a network server, and finally from ROM:
Step Command Purpose

1 . 

configure terminal

Enter configuration mode from the terminal

2 . 

boot system flash [flash-filesystem:][partition-number:] filename

Configure the router to boot from Flash memory.

3 . 

boot system [rcp | tftp] filename [ip-address]

Configure the router to boot from a network server.

4 . 

boot system rom

Configure the router to boot from ROM.

5 . 

config-register value

Set the configuration register to enable loading of the system image specified in the configuration file.

6 . 

end

Exit configuration mode.

7 . 

copy system:running-config nvram:startup-config

Save the configuration file to your startup configuration.

In the example, a router is configured to first boot an internal Flash image called gsxx. Should that image fail, the router will boot the configuration file gsxx from a network server. If that method should fail, then the system will boot from ROM.

Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# boot system flash gsxx
Router(config)# boot system gsxx 172.16.101.101
Router(config)# boot system rom
Router(config)# config-register 0x010F
Router(config)# end
Router# copy system:running-config nvram:startup-config
[ok]

Using this strategy, a router has three alternative sources from which to boot. These alternative sources help lessen the negative effects of a failure on network or file server.

Recovering a System Image Using Xmodem or Ymodem

If you do not have access to a network server and need to download a system image (to update it, or if all the system images in Flash memory somehow are damaged or erased), you can copy an image from a local or remote computer (such as a PC, UNIX workstation, or Macintosh) using the Xmodem or Ymodem protocols. This functionality primarily serves as a disaster recovery technique and is illustrated in Figure 12.


Note Recovering system images using Xmodem or Ymodem is performed on the Cisco  1600 series and Cisco  3600 series routers only.

Xmodem and Ymodem are common protocols used for transferring files and are included in applications such as Windows  3.1 (TERMINAL.EXE), Windows  95 (HyperTerminal), Windows  NT  3.5x (TERMINAL.EXE), Windows  NT  4.0 (HyperTerminal), and Linux  UNIX freeware (minicom).

Cisco 3600 series routers do not support XBOOT functionality, a disaster recovery technique for Cisco  IOS software, and do not have a separate boot helper (rxboot) image.

Xmodem and Ymodem downloads are slow, so you should use them only when you do not have access to a network server. You can speed up the transfer by setting the transfer port speed to 115200  bps.

On the Cisco  3600 series, you can perform the file transfer using Cisco  IOS software or, if all local system images are damaged or erased, the ROM monitor. When you use Cisco  IOS software for an Xmodem or Ymodem file transfer, the transfer can occur on either the AUX port or the console port. The AUX port, which supports hardware flow control, is recommended. File transfers from the ROM monitor must use the console port.

On the Cisco  1600 series, you can only perform the file transfer from the ROM monitor over the console port.


Figure 12:
Copying a System Image to a Cisco 3600 Series Router with Xmodem /Ymodem

To copy a Cisco  IOS image from a computer or workstation to a router using the Xmodem or Ymodem protocol, use one of the following commands:
Command Purpose

copy xmodem: flash-filesystem:[partition:][filename]

or

copy ymodem: flash-filesystem:[partition:][filename]

For the Cisco  3600 only, copy a system image from a computer to Flash memory using Cisco  IOS software in EXEC mode.

xmodem [-y] [-c] [-e] [-f] [-r] [-x] [-s data-rate][filename] (Cisco  1600 series only)

xmodem [-c | -y | -r | -x] [filename] (Cisco  3600 series only)

The -c option provides CRC-16 checksumming; -y uses the Ymodem protocol; -e erases the first partition in Flash memory; -f erases all of Flash memory; -r downloads the image to DRAM (the default is Flash memory); and -x prevents the image from executing after download; and -s sets the console port data rate.

Copy a system image from a computer to Flash memory using the ROM monitor.

The computer from which you transfer the Cisco  IOS image must be running terminal emulation software and the Xmodem or Ymodem protocol.

For the Cisco  1600 series, if you include the -r option (download to DRAM), your router must have enough DRAM to hold the file being transferred. To run from Flash memory, an image must be positioned as the first file in Flash memory. If you are copying a new image to boot from Flash memory, erase all existing files first.

Xmodem Transfer Example Using the Cisco IOS Software
(Cisco  3600 series only)

This example shows a file transfer using Cisco  IOS software and the Xmodem protocol. The Ymodem protocol follows a similar procedure, using the copy ymodem: command.

To transfer a Cisco  IOS image from a computer running terminal emulation software and the Xmodem protocol, follow these steps:

Step 1 Place a Cisco  IOS software image on the remote computer's hard drive. You can download an image from Cisco Connection Online.

Step 2 To transfer from a remote computer, connect a modem to the AUX port of your Cisco  3600 series router and to the standard telephone network. The AUX port is set by default to a speed of 9600  bps, 2 stop bits, and no parity. The maximum speed is 115200  bps. Configure the router for both incoming and outgoing calls by entering the modem inout command.

Connect a modem to the remote computer and to the telephone network. The remote computer dials through the telephone network and connects to the router.

To transfer from a local computer, connect the router's AUX port to a serial port on the computer, using a null-modem cable. The AUX speed configured on the router must match the transfer speed configured on the local computer.

Step 3 At the EXEC prompt in the terminal emulator window of the computer, enter the copy xmodem: flash: command:

Press Enter to continue.

Step 4 Specify whether to use cyclic redundancy check (CRC) block checksumming, which verifies that your data has been correctly transferred from the computer to the router. If your computer does not support CRC block checksumming, answer no at the prompt:

Step 5 Determine how many times the software should try to receive a bad block of data before it declares the copy operation a failure. The default is 10 retries. A higher number may be needed for noisy telephone lines. You can configure an unlimited number of retries.

Step 6 Decide whether you want to check that the file is a valid Cisco 3600 series image:

After the transfer has begun, and if the image is valid, the software checks to see whether enough Flash memory space exists on the router to accommodate the transfer:

Step 7 Enter the destination filename:

Step 8 If you do not want the contents of internal Flash memory erased before the file transfer, enter no:

Step 9 Start an Xmodem or Ymodem send operation with the terminal emulation software on the computer that is sending the system image to the router. See your emulation software application's manual for instructions on how to execute a file transfer. Depending on the application you use, the emulation software may display the progress of the file transfer.

Xmodem Transfer Example Using the ROM Monitor

This example shows a file transfer using the ROM monitor and the Xmodem protocol. To transmit with the Ymodem protocol, use the xmodem -y command.

For the Cisco  3600, the router must have enough DRAM to hold the file being transferred, even if you are copying to Flash memory. The image is copied to the first file in internal Flash memory. Any existing files in Flash memory are erased. Copying files to Flash partitions or to the second-file position is not supported.

Caution A modem connection from the telephone network to your console port introduces security issues that you should consider before enabling the connection. For example, remote users can dial into your modem and access the router's configuration settings.

Step 1 Place a Cisco  IOS software image on the remote computer's hard drive. You can download an image from Cisco Connection Online or from the Feature Pack (Cisco  1600 series only).

Step 2 To transfer from a remote computer, connect a modem to the console port of your router and to the standard telephone network. The modem and console port must communicate at the same speed, which can be from 9600 to 115200 bps (Cisco  3600 series) or from 1200 to 115200 bps (Cisco  1600 series), depending on the speed supported by your modem. Use the confreg ROM monitor command to configure the console port transmission speed for the router. For the Cisco  1600 series, you can also set the transmission speed with the -s option.

Connect a modem to the remote computer and to the telephone network. The remote computer dials through the telephone network and connects to the router.

To transfer from a local computer, connect the router's console port to a serial port on the computer, using a null-modem cable. The console port speed configured on the router must match the transfer speed configured on the local computer.

Step 3 You should see a ROM monitor prompt in the terminal emulation window:

Enter the xmodem ROM monitor command, along with any desired copy options and, optionally, the filename of the Cisco  IOS image. The image loads into Flash memory by default; to download to DRAM instead, use the -r option. The image is normally executed on completion of the file transfer; to prevent execution, use the -x option. The -c option specifies CRC-16 checksumming, which is more sophisticated and thorough than standard checksumming, if it is supported by the computer:

Step 4 Start an Xmodem send operation, which is initiated from the terminal emulation software on the remote computer that is sending the system image to the router. See your emulation software application's manual for instructions on how to execute a Xmodem file transfer.

Step 5 The Cisco  IOS image is transferred and executed. If you are transferring from a remote computer, the computer maintains control of your console port even after the new Cisco  IOS image is running. To release control to a local terminal, reconfigure the speed of the router's console port to match the speed of the local terminal by entering the speed bps configuration command from the remote computer at the router prompt:

The remote connection is broken, and you can disconnect the modem from the console port and reconnect the terminal line.

Load and Display Microcode Images

On the Cisco 7000 series with RSP7000 and Cisco 7500 series, you can also load and display microcode images, as described in the following sections:

Understand Microcode Images

Microcode images contain microcode which runs on various hardware devices. By default, the system loads the microcode bundled with the system software. However, you can configure the router to use microcode stored in Flash.

Cisco 7000 series with a RSP7000 and Cisco 7500 series each have a writable control store (WCS) which stores microcode. You can load updated microcode onto the WCS from bootflash or a Flash memory card inserted in one of the PCMCIA slots of the RSP card.

You can update microcode without having physical access to the router by using the copy command to copy microcode to a Flash file system.

Specify the Location of the Microcode Images

By default, the system loads the microcode bundled with the system software. However, you can configure the router to load different microcode.

Specify the location of the microcode to use, use the following commands beginning in EXEC mode:
Step Command Purpose

1 . 

copy tftp: flash:

or

copy tftp: file-id

(Optional) Copy microcode files into Flash. You only need to if you are loading the microcode from Flash.

See the section "Copy Images from a Network Server to Flash Memory" for more information about how to copy images to Flash memory.

2 . 

configure terminal

Enter configuration mode.

3 . 

microcode interface [flash-filesystem:filename [slot] | system [slot]]

Configure the router to load microcode into the WCS from Flash memory or the system image. By default, the microcode bundled with the system image is loaded.

4 . 

end

Exit configuration mode.

5 . 

copy system:running-config nvram:startup-config

Retain new configuration information when the system is rebooted.

If an error occurs when you are attempting to download microcode, the system loads the default system microcode image, which is bundled with the system software.


Note Microcode images cannot be compressed.

Reload the Microcode Image

The configuration commands specifying the microcode are implemented following one of three events:

After you have entered a microcode configuration command and one of these events has taken place, all cards are reset, loaded with microcode from the appropriate sources, tested, and enabled for operation.

To signal to the system that all microcode configuration commands have been entered and the processor cards should be reloaded, use the following global configuration mode command:
Command Purpose

microcode reload

Notify the system that all microcode configuration commands have been entered and the processor cards should be reloaded.

Immediately after you enter the microcode reload command and press Return, the system reloads all microcode. Global configuration mode remains enabled. After the reload is complete, enter the exit command to return to the EXEC prompt.

If Flash memory is busy because a card is being removed or inserted, or a microcode reload command is executed while Flash is locked, the files will not be available and the onboard ROM microcode will be loaded. Issue another microcode reload command when Flash memory is available, and the proper microcode will be loaded. The show flash command will show if another user or process has locked Flash memory.


Note The microcode reload command should not be used while Flash is in use. For example, do not use this command when a copy {ftp: | rcp: | tftp:} flash-filesystem or show flash-filesystem: command is active.

The microcode reload command is automatically added to your running configuration when you issue a microcode command that changes the system's default behavior of loading all processors from ROM.

In the following example, all controllers are reset, the specified microcode is loaded, and the CxBus complex is reinitialized according to the microcode configuration commands that have been written to memory:

Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# microcode reload
Router(config)# end

Display Microcode Image Information

To display microcode information, use the following command in EXEC mode:
Command Purpose

show microcode

Display microcode information.

Load Cisco IOS Images on the Cisco 12000 GSR

Loading a Cisco IOS image on the GRP on a Cisco 12000 series router is the same as loading images on Cisco 7500 series routers. In addition to the Cisco IOS image that resides on the GRP, each line card on the Cisco 12000 series has a Cisco IOS image. When the router is reloaded, the specified Cisco  IOS image is loaded onto the GRP, and that image is automatically dowloaded to all the line cards.

For additional information on how to load Cisco IOS images, refer to the "Observing System Startup and Performing a Basic Configuration" chapter in the Cisco  12012 Gigabit Switch Router Installation and Configuration Guide.

Normally, you want the same Cisco IOS image on the GRP and all line cards. However, if you want to upgrade a line card with a new version of microcode for testing or to fix a defect, you might need to load a Cisco IOS image that is different from the one on the line card. Additionally, you might need to load a new image on the line card to work around a problem that is affecting only one of the line cards.

On the Cisco 12000 series GSR you load the microcode image as described in the following sections:

Load Image on a Line Card

To load a Cisco IOS image on a line card, first use the copy tftp command to download the Cisco  IOS image to a slot on one of the PCMCIA Flash cards. After you have downloaded the Cisco  IOS image on the Flash card, use the following commands beginning in global configuration mode:
Step Command Purpose

1 . 

microcode {oc12-atm | oc12-pos | oc3-pos-4} flash file_id slot-number

Specify the type of line card, location of the Cisco IOS image, and the slot of the line card to download the image. If the slot number is omitted, the image is downloaded to all line cards.

2 . 

microcode reload slot-number

Reload the image on the specified line card.

3 . 

exit

Exit configuration mode.

4 . 

execute-on slot slot-number show version

or

attach slot-number

show version

exit

Connect to the line card and verify that the new Cisco IOS image is on the line card by checking the version number in the display output.

Set the LED Message on a Line Card

You can specify the message that is displayed on the LED on the front panel of one or more line cards. You can also remove the user-specified message that is displayed on the LED on the front panel of one or more line cards and revert to the normal status message for the line card.

To set or clear the LED message, use one of the following commands in privileged EXEC mode:
Command Purpose

set card-message {all | slot number} [expire seconds] [blink seconds] message

or

Set the message displayed on the LED on the front panel of one or more line cards.

clear card-message {all | slot number}

Clear the user-specified message that is displayed on the LED on the front panel of one or more line cards and revert to the normal status message for the line card.


hometocprevnextglossaryfeedbacksearchhelp
Copyright 1989-1998 © Cisco Systems Inc.