Полезная информация




SENDMAIL(1)                                           SENDMAIL(1)


NAME
       sendmail - Postfix to Sendmail compatibility interface

SYNOPSIS
       sendmail [option ...] [recipient ...]

       mailq
       sendmail -bp

       newaliases
       sendmail -I

DESCRIPTION
       The  sendmail  program  implements the Postfix to Sendmail
       compatibility interface.  For the  sake  of  compatibility
       with  existing  applications,  some  Sendmail command-line
       options are recognized but silently ignored.

       By default, sendmail reads a message from  standard  input
       until  EOF  or until it reads a line with only a . charac-
       ter, and arranges for delivery.  sendmail attempts to cre-
       ate a queue file in the maildrop directory. If that direc-
       tory is not world-writable, the message is  piped  through
       the postdrop(1) command, which is expected to execute with
       suitable privileges.

       Specific command aliases are  provided  for  other  common
       modes of operation:

       mailq  List  the  mail  queue.  Each entry shows the queue
              file ID, message size, arrival  time,  sender,  and
              the recipients that still need to be delivered.  If
              mail could not be delivered upon the last  attempt,
              the reason for failure is shown. This mode of oper-
              ation is implemented by connecting to the  showq(8)
              daemon.

       newaliases
              Initialize the alias database. If no alias database
              type is specified, the program uses the type speci-
              fied  in the database_type configuration parameter;
              if no input file is  specified,  the  program  pro-
              cesses    the    file(s)    specified    with   the
              alias_database configuration parameter.  This  mode
              of  operation is implemented by running the postal-
              ias(1) command.

              Note: it may take a minute or so  before  an  alias
              database  update  becomes  visible. Use the postfix
              reload command to eliminate this delay.

       These and other features can be selected by specifying the
       appropriate combination of command-line options. Some fea-
       tures  are  controlled  by  parameters  in   the   main.cf



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SENDMAIL(1)                                           SENDMAIL(1)


       configuration file.

       The following options are recognized:

       -B body_type (ignored)
              The  message  body  MIME  type.  Currently, Postfix
              implements just-send-eight.

       -C config_file (ignored :-)
              The path name of the sendmail.cf file. Postfix con-
              figuration files are kept in /etc/postfix.

       -F full_name
              Set  the  sender  full name. This is used only with
              messages that have no From: message header.

       -I     Initialize alias database. See the newaliases  com-
              mand above.

       -N dsn (ignored)
              Delivery  status  notification  control. Currently,
              Postfix does not implement DSN.

       -R return_limit (ignored)
              Limit  the  size   of   bounced   mail.   Use   the
              bounce_size_limit  configuration parameter instead.

       -X log_file (ignored)
              Log mailer traffic.  Use  the  debug_peer_list  and
              debug_peer_level  configuration parameters instead.

       -U (ignored)
              Initial user submission.

       -bd    Go into daemon mode.  This  mode  of  operation  is
              implemented by executing the postfix start command.

       -bi    Initialize alias database. See the newaliases  com-
              mand above.

       -bm    Read  mail  from  standard  input  and  arrange for
              delivery.  This is the default mode of operation.

       -bp    List the mail queue. See the mailq command above.

       -bs    Stand-alone SMTP server mode.  Read  SMTP  commands
              from  standard  input, and write responses to stan-
              dard output.  This mode of operation is implemented
              by running the smtpd(8) daemon.

       -f sender
              Set  the  envelope  sender  address.  This  is  the
              address where delivery problems are sent to, unless
              the  message contains an Errors-To: message header.



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SENDMAIL(1)                                           SENDMAIL(1)


       -h hop_count (ignored)
              Hop count limit. Use the hopcount_limit  configura-
              tion parameter instead.

       -i     When  reading  a message from standard input, don't
              treat a line with only a . character as the end  of
              input.

       -m (ignored)
              Backwards compatibility.

       -n (ignored)
              Backwards compatibility.

       -oAalias_database
              Non-default  alias  database.  Specify  pathname or
              type:pathname. See postalias(1) for details.

       -o7 (ignored)

       -o8 (ignored)
              The message body type.  Currently,  Postfix  imple-
              ments just-send-eight.

       -oi    When  reading  a message from standard input, don't
              treat a line with only a . character as the end  of
              input.

       -om (ignored)
              The  sender  is  never  eliminated  from alias etc.
              expansions.

       -o x value (ignored)
              Set option x to value. Use the equivalent  configu-
              ration parameter in main.cf instead.

       -r sender
              Set  the  envelope  sender  address.  This  is  the
              address where delivery problems are sent to, unless
              the  message contains an Errors-To: message header.

       -q     Attempt to deliver all queued mail. This is  imple-
              mented by kicking the qmgr(8) daemon.

       -qinterval (ignored)
              The   interval   between   queue   runs.   Use  the
              queue_run_delay configuration parameter instead.

       -qRsite
              Schedule immediate delivery of  all  mail  that  is
              queued  for the named site. Depending on the desti-
              nation, this uses "fast flush" service, or  it  has
              the  same  effect  as  sendmail -q.  This is imple-
              mented by connecting to the local SMTP server.  See



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SENDMAIL(1)                                           SENDMAIL(1)


              smtpd(8)  for  more  information  about  the  "fast
              flush" service.

       -qSsite
              This command is not  implemented.  Use  the  slower
              sendmail -q command instead.

       -t     Extract   recipients  from  message  headers.  This
              requires that no recipients  be  specified  on  the
              command line.

       -v     Enable verbose logging for debugging purposes. Mul-
              tiple -v options  make  the  software  increasingly
              verbose.

SECURITY
       By  design,  this  program  is not set-user (or group) id.
       However, it must  handle  data  from  untrusted  users  or
       untrusted  machines.   Thus, the usual precautions need to
       be taken against malicious inputs.

DIAGNOSTICS
       Problems are logged to  syslogd(8)  and  to  the  standard
       error stream.

ENVIRONMENT
       MAIL_CONFIG
              Directory with Postfix configuration files.

       MAIL_VERBOSE
              Enable verbose logging for debugging purposes.

       MAIL_DEBUG
              Enable debugging with an external command, as spec-
              ified  with  the   debugger_command   configuration
              parameter.

FILES
       /var/spool/postfix, mail queue
       /etc/postfix, configuration files

CONFIGURATION PARAMETERS
       See  the  Postfix  main.cf file for syntax details and for
       default values. Use the postfix  reload  command  after  a
       configuration change.

       alias_database
              Default   alias  database(s)  for  newaliases.  The
              default value for  this  parameter  is  system-spe-
              cific.

       bounce_size_limit
              The amount of original message context that is sent
              along with a non-delivery notification.



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SENDMAIL(1)                                           SENDMAIL(1)


       database_type
              Default alias etc. database type. On many UNIX sys-
              tems the default type is either dbm or hash.

       debugger_command
              Command that is executed after a Postfix daemon has
              initialized.

       debug_peer_level
              Increment in verbose logging level  when  a  remote
              host  matches  a  pattern  in  the  debug_peer_list
              parameter.

       debug_peer_list
              List of domain or network patterns. When  a  remote
              host  matches  a pattern, increase the verbose log-
              ging  level  by  the  amount   specified   in   the
              debug_peer_level parameter.

       fast_flush_domains
              List of domains that will receive "fast flush" ser-
              vice (default: all  domains  that  this  system  is
              willing  to  relay  mail to). This greatly improves
              the performance of the SMTP ETRN  request,  and  of
              the  sendmail  -qR  command. For domains not in the
              list, Postfix simply attempts to deliver all queued
              mail.

       fork_attempts
              Number  of attempts to fork() a process before giv-
              ing up.

       fork_delay
              Delay  in   seconds   between   successive   fork()
              attempts.

       hopcount_limit
              Limit the number of Received: message headers.

       mail_owner
              The  owner  of  the  mail queue and of most Postfix
              processes.

       command_directory
              Directory with Postfix support  commands  (default:
              $program_directory).

       daemon_directory
              Directory  with  Postfix  daemon programs (default:
              $program_directory).

       queue_directory
              Top-level directory of the Postfix queue.  This  is
              also the root directory of Postfix daemons that run



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SENDMAIL(1)                                           SENDMAIL(1)


              chrooted.

       queue_run_delay
              The time between successive scans of  the  deferred
              queue.

SEE ALSO
       pickup(8) mail pickup daemon
       postalias(1) maintain alias database
       postdrop(1) privileged posting agent
       postfix(1) mail system control
       postkick(1) kick a Postfix daemon
       qmgr(8) queue manager
       showq(8) list mail queue
       smtpd(8) SMTP server
       flushd(8) fast flush service
       syslogd(8) system logging

LICENSE
       The  Secure  Mailer  license must be distributed with this
       software.

AUTHOR(S)
       Wietse Venema
       IBM T.J. Watson Research
       P.O. Box 704
       Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA






























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