Полезная информация

Oracle8 Administrator's Reference
Release 8.0.5 for Intel-LINUX

A66585-02

Library

Product

Contents

Index

Prev Next

1
Optimal Flexible Architecture on Oracle8

Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA)

Oracle Corporation recommends the Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) standard for Oracle8. The OFA standard is a set of configuration guidelines for fast, reliable Oracle databases that require little maintenance.

OFA is designed to:

Characteristics of OFA-Compliant Database

An OFA-compliant database provides the following benefits:

File System Organization

The file system is organized to allow easy administration and accommodate scalability for:

Distributed I/O Loads

I/O loads are distributed across enough disk drives to prevent performance bottlenecks.

Hardware Support

Hardware costs are minimized only when it does not conflict with operational considerations.

Safeguards Against Drive Failures

By spreading applications across more than one drive, drive failures impact as few applications as possible.

Distribution of Home Directories

The following items can be distributed across more than one disk drive:

Integrity of Login Home Directories

It is possible to add, move, or delete login home directories without having to revise programs that refer to them.

Independence of LINUX Directory Subtrees

Categories of files are separated into independent LINUX directory subtrees so that files in one category are minimally affected by operations on files in other categories.

Supports Concurrent Execution of Application Software

It is possible to execute multiple versions of applications software simultaneously, allowing the user to test and use a new release of an application before abandoning the previous version. Transferring to a new version after an upgrade is simple for the administrator and transparent for the user.

Distinguishes Administrative Information for each Database

The ability to separate administrative information about one database from that of another, ensures a reasonable structure for the organization and storage of administrative data.

Uses Consistent Database File Naming

Database files are named so that:

Separation of Tablespace Contents

Tablespace contents are separated to:

Tuning of I/O Loads across all Drives

I/O loads are tuned across all drives, including drives storing Oracle data in raw devices.

Additional Benefits of OFA for Parallel Server

For Oracle Parallel Server Installations:

OFA Implemented on Oracle8 for LINUX

A careful naming strategy for database files eliminates data administration problems. The OFA rules provided here correspond to the original OFA recommendations published in The OFA Standard: Oracle8 for Open Systems.

Naming Mount Points

Mount Point Syntax

Name all mount points using the syntax /pm, where p is a string constant and m is a unique fixed-length key (typically a two-digit number) used to distinguish each mount point. For example: /u01 and /u02, or /disk01 and /disk02.

Naming Mount Points for Very Large Databases (VLDBs)

If each disk drive contains database files from one application and there are enough drives for each database to ensure no I/O bottleneck, then use the syntax /q/dm for naming mount points, as explained in Table 1-1.

Table 1-1 Syntax for Naming Mount Points

q

 

a string denoting that Oracle data is stored here

 

dm

 

the value of the initialization parameter DB_NAME (synonymous with the instance sid for single-instance databases)

 

For example, mount points named /u01/oradata/test01 and /u01/oradata/test02 allocate two drives for the Oracle test database.

Naming Directories

Home Directory Syntax

Name home directories using the syntax /pm/h/u, as explained in Table 1-2.

Table 1-2 Syntax for Naming Home Directories

pm

 

a mount point name

 

h

 

a standard directory name

 

u

 

the name of the owner of the directory

 

For example, /u01/app/oracle is the Oracle server software owner home directory (also referred to as ORACLE_BASE and defaulted by the installer) and /u01/app/applmgr is an Oracle applications software owner home directory.

Placing home directories at the same level in the LINUX file system is advantageous for the following reason: it allows the collection of applications owner login home directories on different mount points, to be referred to with the single pattern matching string, /*/app/*.

Referring to Pathnames

Refer to explicit pathnames only in files designed specifically to store them, such as /etc/passwd and the Oracle oratab file. Refer to group memberships only in the /etc/group file.

Software Directories

In order to help fulfill the OFA requirement that it be possible to simultaneously execute multiple versions of application software, store each version of the Oracle8 Server software in a directory matching the pattern /pm/h/product/v, as explained in Table 1-3

Table 1-3 Syntax for Naming Oracle8 Server Software Directories

h

 

a standard directory name

 

v

 

the version of the software

 
.

For example: /u01/app/oracle/product/8.0.5 indicates the start of the directory structure where the Oracle8 Server files are located. Set the ORACLE_HOME environment variable to this directory.

Naming Files

Administration Files

To facilitate the organization of administrative data, it is recommended that you store database-specific administration files in subdirectories according to h/admin/d/a/, where h is the Oracle software owner's home directory, d is the database name (DB_NAME), and a is a subdirectory for each of the following database administration files described in Table 1-4:

Table 1-4 Subdirectories for Database Administration Files

adhoc

 

ad hoc SQL scripts for a given database

 

arch

 

archived redo log files

 

adump

 

audit files
(Set AUDIT_FILE_DEST in configdb_name.ora to point here. This subdirectory should be cleaned out periodically).

 

bdump

 

background process trace files

 

cdump

 

core dump files

 

create

 

programs used to create the database

 

exp

 

database export files

 

logbook

 

files recording the status and history of the database

 

pfile

 

instance parameter files

 

udump

 

user SQL trace files

 

As an example, the subdirectory adhoc would have the following pathname, /u01/app/oracle/admin/sab/adhoc/

Database Files

The following naming convention for database files ensures that they are easily identifiable:

This syntax is explained in Table 1-5.

Table 1-5 Syntax for Naming Database Files

pm

 

a mount point name described earlier in this chapter

 

q

 

a string distinguishing Oracle data from all other files (usually named ORACLE or oradata)

 

d

 

the DB_NAME of the database

 

t

 

an Oracle tablespace name

 

n

 

a two-digit string

 


Note:

Do not store files other than a control, redo log or data file associated with database d in the path /pm/q/d.

 

Following this convention could produce for example, a data file with the name, /u03/oradata/sab/system01.dbf, making it easy to see to which database the file belongs.

Separate Segments with Different Requirements

Separate groups of segments with different lifespans, I/O request demands, and backup frequencies across different tablespaces.

For each Oracle database, create the special tablespaces described in Table 1-6. These tablespaces are in addition to those needed for application segments.

Table 1-6 Special Tablespace

SYSTEM

 

data dictionary segments

 

TEMP

 

temporary segments

 

RBS

 

rollback segments

 

TOOLS

 

general-purpose tools

 

USERS

 

miscellaneous user segments

 

This method is effective because dictionary segments are never dropped, and no other segments that can be dropped are allowed in the SYSTEM tablespace. This ensures that the SYSTEM tablespace does not require a rebuild due to tablespace free space fragmentation.

Because rollback segments are not stored in tablespaces holding applications data, the administrator is not blocked from taking an application's tablespace offline for maintenance. The segments are partitioned physically by type, and the administrator can record and predict data growth rates without complicated tools.

Naming Tablespaces

Name tablespaces descriptively using a maximum of eight characters.

Although Oracle8 tablespace names can be thirty characters long, portable LINUX file names are restricted to fourteen characters. The recommended standard for a data file basename is tn.dbf, where t is a descriptive tablespace name and n is a two-digit string. Because the extension plus the two-digit string occupy a total of six characters, only eight characters remain for the tablespace name.

Descriptive names allow the name of a data file to be associated with the tablespace that uses it. For example, the names GLD and GLX might be used for the tablespaces storing General Ledger data and indices, respectively.


Note:

Do not embed reminders of the word "tablespace" in your tablespace names. Tablespaces are distinguishable by context, and names do not need to convey information about type.

 

Exploiting OFA Structure for Oracle Files

Table 1-7 shows the syntax used for identifying classes of files.

Table 1-7 Directory Structure Syntax for Identifying Classes of Files

/u[0-9][0-9]

 

user data directories

 

/*/home/*

 

user home directories

 

/*/app/*

 

user application software directories

 

/*/app/applmgr

 

Oracle apps software subtrees

 

/*/app/oracle/product

 

Oracle Server software subtrees

 

/*/app/oracle/product/8.0.5

 

Oracle Server 8.0.5 distribution files

 

/*/app/oracle/admin/sab

 

sab database administrative subtrees

 

/*/app/oracle/admin/sab/arch/*

 

sab database archived log files

 

/*/oradata

 

Oracle data directories

 

/*/oradata/sab/*

 

sab database files

 

/*/oradata/sab/*.log

 

sab database redo log files

 

OFA File Mapping

Table 1-8 shows an hierarchical file mapping of a sample OFA-compliant database, including each file's mount point, application, database, and tablespace. The file names indicate the file type (control, log, or data).

Table 1-8 Hierarchical File Mapping for OFA Installation

/

 

 

 

 

 

 

root mount point

 

 

u01/

 

 

 

 

 

'user data' mount point #1

 

 

 

app/

 

 

 

 

subtree for app software

 

 

 

 

oracle/

 

 

 

home for oracle software owner

 

 

 

 

 

admin/

 

 

subtree for database admin files

 

 

 

 

 

 

TAR/

 

subtree for Support logs

 

 

 

 

 

 

db_name1/

 

admin subtree for db_name1 database

 

 

 

 

 

 

db_name2/

 

admin subtree for db_name2 database

 

 

 

 

 

doc/

 

 

online documentation

 

 

 

 

 

local/

 

 

subtree for local Oracle software

 

 

 

 

 

 

aps6/

 

an Oracle6 admin package

 

 

 

 

 

 

aps7/

 

an Oracle7 admin package

 

 

 

 

 

product/

 

 

distribution files

 

 

 

 

 

 

7.3.2/

 

ORACLE_HOME for 7.3.2 instances

 

 

 

 

 

 

7.3.3/

 

ORACLE_HOME for 7.3.3 instances

 

 

 

 

 

 

8.0.4/

 

ORACLE_HOME for 8.0.4 instances

 

 

 

home/

 

 

 

 

subtree for login home directories

 

 

 

 

ltb/

 

 

 

home for a user

 

 

 

 

sbm/

 

 

 

home for a user

 

 

 

oradata/

 

 

 

 

subtree for Oracle data

 

 

 

 

db_name1/

 

 

 

subtree for db_name1 database files

 

 

 

 

db_name2/

 

 

 

subtree for db_name2 database files

 

 

u02/

 

 

 

 

 

'user data' mount point #2

 

 

 

home/

 

 

 

 

subtree for login home directories

 

 

 

 

cvm/

 

 

 

home for a user

 

 

 

 

vrm/

 

 

 

home for a user

 

 

 

oradata/

 

 

 

 

subtree for Oracle data

 

 

 

 

db_name1/

 

 

 

subtree for db_name1 database files

 

 

 

 

db_name2/

 

 

 

subtree for db_name2 database files

 

 

u03/

 

 

 

 

 

'user data' mount point #3

 

 

 

home/

 

 

 

 

subtree for login home directories

 

 

 

oradata/

 

 

 

 

subtree for Oracle data

 

 

 

 

db_name1/

 

 

 

subtree for db_name1 database files

 

 

 

 

db_name2/

 

 

 

subtree for db_name2 database files

 

Raw Device Sizes

Choose a small set of standard sizes for all raw devices that may be used to store Oracle database files.

In general, standardizing on a single size is recommended. If a single size is used, raw files can be moved from one partition to another safely. The size should be small enough so that a fairly large number can be created, but large enough to be convenient.

For example, a 2 GB drive could be divided into 10 partitions of 200 MB each-a good balance between size and number. Any tablespace using raw devices should stripe them across several drives. If possible, the striping should be done with a logical volume manager.

File Mapping for Multiple-Instance OFA Database

Multiple-instance databases (Oracle Parallel Server installations) have an additional guideline for file mapping.

Administrative Home for Oracle Parallel Server

When using the Oracle Parallel Server, select one node to act as the Oracle administrative home for the cluster. The administrative home contains the administrative subtree. Create subdirectories for each instance accessing the database within the bdump, cdump, logbook, pfile, and udump directories of ~/admin/d/. The admin directory for the administrative home should be mounted as the admin directory for every instance. An example is shown in Table 1-9.

Table 1-9 Administrative Directory Structure for Dual-Instance Oracle Parallel Server

u01/

 

app/oracle/admin/sab/

 

 

administrative directory for sab database

 

 

adhoc/

 

 

 

directory for miscellaneous scripts

 

 

arch/

 

 

 

log archive dest for all instances

 

 

 

redo001.arc

 

 

archived redo log file

 

 

bdump/

 

 

 

directory for background dump files

 

 

 

inst1/

 

 

background dump dest for inst1 instance

 

 

 

inst2/

 

 

background dump dest for inst2 instance

 

 

cdump/

 

 

 

directory for core dump files

 

 

 

inst1/

 

 

core dump dest for inst1 instance

 

 

 

inst2/

 

 

core dump dest for inst2 instance

 

 

create/

 

 

 

directory for creation scripts

 

 

 

1-rdbms.sql

 

 

SQL script to create inst database

 

 

exp/

 

 

 

directory for exports

 

 

 

970920full.dmp

 

 

Sept 20 full export dump file

 

 

 

export/

 

 

directory for export parfiles

 

 

 

import/

 

 

directory for import parfiles

 

 

logbook/

 

 

 

directory for inst logbook entries

 

 

 

inst1/

 

 

directory for inst1 instance reports

 

 

 

 

params.lst

 

v$parameter report for inst1 instance

 

 

 

inst2/

 

 

directory for inst2 instance reports

 

 

 

 

params.lst

 

v$parameter report for inst2 instance

 

 

 

user.lst

 

 

dba_users report

 

 

pfile/

 

 

 

directory for instance parameter files

 

 

 

inst1/

 

 

directory for inst1 instance parameters

 

 

 

 

init

 

instance parameters for inst1 instance

 

 

 

inst2/

 

 

directory for inst2 instance parameters

 

 

 

 

init

 

instance parameters for inst2 instance

 

 

udump/

 

 

 

directory for user dump files

 

 

 

inst1/

 

 

user dump dest for inst1 instance

 

 

 

inst2/

 

 

user dump dest for inst2 instance

 

Directory Structure

ORACLE_BASE Directory

ORACLE_BASE is the root of the Oracle directory structure. ORACLE_BASE directory structure and content is described in Table 1-10. When installing an OFA-compliant database using the Oracle Installer, ORACLE_BASE is by default, set to /pm/app/oracle.

Table 1-10 ORACLE_BASE Directory Structure and Content

admin

 

administrative files

 

doc

 

online documentation

 

local

 

subtree for local Oracle software

 

product

 

Oracle software

 

ORACLE_HOME Directory

If you install an OFA-compliant Oracle Server, the ORACLE_HOME directory is /mount_point/app/oracle/product/release_number. ORACLE_HOME directory structure and content is described in Table 1-11. Under LINUX , the ORACLE_HOME directory contains the following subdirectories, as well as a subdirectory for each Oracle product:

Table 1-11 ORACLE_HOME Directory Structure and Content

bin

 

binaries for all products

 

ctx

 

ConText cartridge

 

dbs

 

initsid.ora, lksid

 

jdbc

 

JDBC drivers

 

lib

 

Oracle product libraries

 

md

 

Spatial cartridge

 

mlx

 

Xerox Stemmer (for ConText cartridge)

 

network

 

Net8

 

nlsrtl

 

NLS runtime loadable data

 

ocommon

 

common files for all products

 

odg

 

data gatherer

 

opsm

 

Parallel Server Manager Components

 

oracore

 

core libraries

 

orainst

 

master installation files and programs

 

ord

 

data cartridges

 

otrace

 

Oracle TRACE

 

plsql

 

PL/SQL

 

precomp

 

precompilers

 

rdbms

 

server files and libraries required for the database

 

slax

 

SLAX parser

 

sqlplus

 

SQL*Plus

 

svrmgr

 

Server Manager

 

Oracle Product Subdirectories

Product subdirectories may include those described in Table 1-12, depending on the Oracle products available on your system and the products you purchase.

Table 1-12 Oracle Product Subdirectories

network

 

Oracle Net8

 

ocommon

 

libraries and SQL messages. All products depend on this directory, which is installed automatically

 

plsql

 

PL/SQL version 2, procedural option

 

sqlplus

 

SQL*Plus

 

svrmgr

 

Server Manager

 

Contents of Product Subdirectories

Each product subdirectory contains the subdirectories described in Table 1-13:

Table 1-13 Contents of Product Subdirectories

admin

 

administrative SQL and shell scripts (for example, catalog.sql, catexp.sql, and demo.sql)

 

admin/*

 

special directories for other products

 

admin/resource

 

resource files

 

admin/terminal

 

runtime terminal files

 

demo

 

demonstration scripts and datafiles

 

doc

 

README files (for example, readmeLINUX.doc)

 

install

 

product installation scripts

 

lib

 

product libraries and distributed makefiles

 

log

 

trace files and log files (for example, orasrv.log and *.trc files)

 

mesg

 

U.S. message files, and Multilingual Option (formerly National Language Support) message text and binary files (for example, oraus.msg and oraus.msb)

 

Examples of Product Subdirectories

Examples of product subdirectories and their contents are shown in Table 1-14.

Table 1-14 Examples of Product Subdirectories

rdbms

 

install, lib, admin, doc, mesg, log

 

sqlplus

 

install, demo, lib, admin, doc, mesg

 

File Naming Conventions in the admin Directory

The rdbms/admin directory contains the SQL scripts shown in Table 1-15.

Table 1-15 admin Directory, File Naming Conventions

cat*.sql

 

creates catalog and data dictionary tables and views. The following files are run automatically during installation:
catalog.sql (for all installations)
catproc.sql (for all installations)
catparr.sql (for Parallel Server option installations)
catrep.sql (for all installations)

 

dbms*.sql

 

additional database packages

 

utl*.sql

 

creates tables and views for database utilities

 

Filename Extensions

A description of filename extensions is shown in Table 1-16.

Table 1-16 Filename Extensions

.a

 

object file libraries; Ada runtime libraries

 

.ada

 

Ada source files

 

.aud

 

Oracle audit file

 

.bdf

 

X11 font description file

 

.bmp

 

X11 bitmap file

 

.c

 

C source file

 

.ctl

 

SQL*Loader control file; Oracle Server control file

 

.dat

 

SQL*Loader datafile

 

.dbf

 

Oracle Server tablespace file

 

.dei

 

ORCA de-installation script

 

.dmp

 

Export file

 

.doc

 

ASCII text file

 

.env

 

shell script file for setting environment

 

.f

 

FORTRAN source file

 

.h

 

C header file; also, sr.h is a SQL*Report Writer help file

 

.ins

 

ORCA installation script

 

.l

 

LINUX manual page

 

.lis

 

output of SQL*Plus scripts

 

.log

 

installation log files; Oracle Server redo log files

 

.map

 

Installer product component files

 

.mk

 

make files

 

.msb

 

NLS message file (binary)

 

.msg

 

NLS message file (text)

 

.o

 

object module

 

.ora

 

Oracle configuration files

 

.orc

 

installation prototype files

 

.pad

 

Pro*Ada source file

 

.pc

 

Pro*C source file

 

.pco

 

Pro*COBOL source file

 

.ppd

 

printer driver file

 

.pfo

 

Pro*FORTRAN source file

 

.prd

 

product registration template file (for orainst)

 

.res

 

Toolkit II resource file

 

.sh

 

Bourne shell script file

 

.sql

 

SQL* script files

 

.sys

 

Bourne shell script file

 

.tab

 

SQL* script file

 

.trc

 

trace files

 

.tut

 

Bourne shell script file

 

.us

 

orainst message file

 

.utd

 

Uniform Terminal Definitions

 

.vrf

 

Installer Dependencies Verification Script

 

Default OFA Database

An OFA default database created using the Oracle Installer is shown in Figure 1-1.

Figure 1-1 Default Oracle Installation




Prev

Next
Oracle
Copyright © 1999 Oracle Corporation.

All Rights Reserved.

Library

Product

Contents

Index