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Oracle8 Installation Guide
Release 8.0.5 for Intel-LINUX






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Using the Oracle Installer

This appendix describes how to use the Installer for procedures other than first-time installations. First-time installations are described in Chapter 3, "Installation Tasks".

Navigation and Help


The Installer session is a series of prompts about the local system and the Oracle configuration you want to create. Each prompt is displayed in its own window, such as the Installer Activity Choice screen, which is shown in Figure A-1.

Use [Tab] key to move to next block.

Use arrow keys to move between fields.

Use the spacebar to select the current field.

Figure A-1 Installer Screen

Installer Help System

You can invoke Installer online help with the Help button. When you select the Help button, the Installer invokes a browser and displays help text.

Creating Database Objects

The Installer can be used to create database objects for Oracle products. Database objects are logical structures such as tables, tablespaces, roles, views, and indexes that are stored in the database. In the case of the Oracle8 Server, the database object is the database and data dictionary.

Oracle Corporation recommends that you install software and create database objects in separate Installer sessions. While this might seem more complicated than having the Installer do both tasks in the same session, it simplifies debugging if you encounter problems during the Installer session.

Installer-Created Database Objects

It is possible to create product database objects for some products manually, rather than with the Installer, but Oracle Corporation recommends that you always use the Installer. Using the Installer ensures that objects are created properly and populated with appropriate data.


This recommendation does not apply to creating a database (the database object for the Oracle RDBMS). See Installer-Created Database on page A-6 for recommendations about creating a database.


Accepting Defaults

Some products have prompts associated with database object creation. Prompts regarding database objects typically fall into three categories:

Object Location

Default object location is usually based on the one tablespace common to all databases, the SYSTEM tablespace. SYSTEM, however, is rarely an acceptable location. Tables that grow rapidly, or that have rows added and deleted, result in fragmentation which can seriously degrade performance when it occurs in the SYSTEM tablespace.

Object Size

Object size usually depends on the anticipated size and usage of the system. The default sizes offered by the Installer are typically appropriate only for testing.

Schema Owner

Schema owner defaults should be accepted, unless you have a specific reason for doing otherwise.

Installer-Created Database

Oracle Corporation recommends using an Installer-created database for testing purposes only. The default database is fairly simple; it is OFA-compliant, but it is small and not optimized for any particular environment or usage. During its creation, you can specify different tablespace locations and sizes, but you cannot create any tablespaces other than the basic five: SYSTEM, ROLLBACK, TEMP, TOOLS, and USERS.

Default and Repeat Installations

The Installer provides two mechanisms to simplify and automate installation sessions:

A default installation minimizes the number of Installer prompts by automatically selecting default values for the initial Installer prompts. Silent mode uses responses recorded during an earlier Installer session to answer prompts in the current installation. It is useful when performing numerous, similar installations.

Default Installation Path

The default installation path prompts you for the values of ORACLE_BASE, ORACLE_HOME, and ORACLE_SID. After you provide the required information, the Installer takes you to the Software Asset Manager screen, where you specify the products you want to install.

Table A-1 lists the Installer prompts that are not shown during a default installation, and the values the Installer uses.

Table A-1 Default Installer Values
Installer Prompt   Default Value  

Installer log location




SQL log location




Operating system log location




Make log location




Installation source








Root actions


Appended to existing root.sh file (if it exists)


You can also specify default or custom installation in the environment by setting the variable DEF_INSTALL to either TRUE or FALSE, before starting the Installer.

Silent Mode (for Repeat Installations)

Repeat installations are performed by creating a response file during an initial installation, then using the response file to provide answers to prompts during subsequent installations, when the Installer is running in silent mode.


Use silent mode only to install the same products you installed during the initial installation, or a subset of them.


Perform the following steps to use the Installer in silent mode:

  1. Run the Installer for the initial installation, recording your answers to prompts in a response file.
$ ./orainst /rspdest filename

where filename is the full pathname of the response file where the Installer will record your answers. Be sure to specify a directory where the oracle account has write permission.

  1. After the initial installation, edit the response file, changing any necessary values (for example: pathnames, mount points, ORACLE_SID). You can use any UNIX text editor.
  2. Invoke the Installer, specifying the response file and products to install.
$ ./orainst /rspsrc filename /install products /silent




is the full pathname of the response file you created in a previous installation.




is a comma-separated (no spaces) list of products to install. Available products and the product names to use in the command line are available in the orainst/unix.prd file on the Oracle distribution.


Regardless of whether you are using the Installer in silent mode, you can set the environment so the Installer skips the display of README files. To skip README files, set the NO_README environment variable to TRUE, before starting the Installer.

Following is an example of the commands to invoke the Installer, create a response file, and then use that response file in a subsequent installation. The products specified for installation are the Oracle8 Server, Server Manager, and Oracle Names Server.

$ ./orainst /rspdest resp_805.rsp
$ ./orainst /rspsrc resp_805.rsp /install rdbms,svrmgrl,NAMES /silent

Upgrades and Patch Set Installations

Table A-2 describes the terminology and release numbering associated with different types of Oracle releases. Regardless of the type, use the Installer to perform the upgrade.

Table A-2 Upgrade Terminology and Release Level
Type of Release   "Significant Figure" in Release Level   Scope of Release  

New Release, or
Major Upgrade


First and second level:
7.2, 7.3, 8.0


Major functionality or architectural changes


Upgrade, or
Maintenance Upgrade


Third level: 7.3.2, 7.3.3


Bug fixes and minor new functionality


Patch Set


Fourth level:,


Bug fixes only


New releases and maintenance upgrades are always complete software distributions, and should be installed in separate ORACLE_HOME directories from existing Oracle Servers. Patch sets are never complete software distributions, and must always be installed on top of an existing release.

Patch Sets

Oracle Corporation Patch Sets

Patch sets are Oracle Corporation's mechanism for delivering fully tested and integrated product fixes on a regular basis. Patch sets provide bug fixes only; they do not include new functionality, and do not require re-certification on the target system.

What Goes Into a Patch Set?

Patch sets include only the libraries affected by the bug fixes in the set. All the fixes in a patch set have been tested and are certified to work with each other. Because a patch set includes only low-impact patches in RDBMS and PL/SQL libraries, it does not require you to recertify applications or tools against the Server.

Patch sets are cumulative, and contain the same set of generic fixes across all platforms. For example, patch set contains patch set, plus the bug fixes since that set. Patch set for Hewlett-Packard addresses the same set of bugs as for Digital UNIX. Note, however, that patch sets may also include a small number of patches specific to the platform on which they are released.

Patch sets do not include the Installer (orainst) in their distribution. You must use the Installer from the baseline release--7.3.3, for instance, if you are installing patch set

Installing a Patch Set

As with any maintenance operation, Oracle Corporation recommends that you back up your Oracle software before making any changes to it.

  1. Log in to the oracle account and make sure the environment is set to the correct ORACLE_HOME and ORACLE_SID.
  1. Uncompress and untar the downloaded patch set file.
  2. Shut down the existing Oracle Server instance with normal priority.
  3. Start the Installer that was provided in the baseline release. If it is installed on your system, it is under the $ORACLE_HOME/orainst directory. Otherwise, you can run it from the baseline release CD-ROM.
  4. At the Installation Options screen, specify the Add/Upgrade Software option.
  5. Accept relinking when prompted by the Installer.
  6. At the Software Asset Manager screen, use the [From] button to bring up a file browser and navigate to the directory with the untarred patch set.
  7. Select the Oracle Server (RDBMS), then select the Install button.
  8. When the Installer has finished, it prompts you to run the root.sh script. You do not have to run the root.sh script after installing a patch set.

De-Installing a Patch Set

There is no mechanism provided for de-installing a patch set. If you are concerned about being able to de-install a patch set, Oracle Corporation recommends that you back up your software installation, before applying the patch set.

If you must remove a patch set, Oracle Corporation recommends one of the following procedures (in order of preference):

Regardless of how you remove a patch set, please contact Oracle Worldwide Support to verify the problem you are encountering is addressed in the next patch set.

Other Installer Functions

Rebuilding the Client Shared Library and Relinking

Effective with release 8.0.3, most Oracle products use shared libraries. Shared libraries reduce the space required for products; they also significantly reduce the number of circumstances that require relinking. Instead of relinking, some situations require you to rebuild the client shared library, libclntsh.so.

Rebuilding the Client Shared Library

Rebuilding the client shared library is required in the following situations:

The Installer relinks products and rebuilds the client shared library as necessary.

Relinking Products

The following situations still require relinking:

Use the following procedure to relink products:

  1. Start the Installer.
  1. From the Installation Activity Choice screen, select the Perform Administrative Tasks option.
  2. Select the Relink Product Executables option.
  3. When the Software Asset Manager screen appears, select all the products to be relinked and select the Install button.
  4. If you are relinking on an Oracle Parallel Server system, you must relink the products on all nodes.

Removing Products

When you de-install a product, the Installer removes only the files for the product. It does not remove database objects, directories, or libraries shared by other products. If a library is required only by a product you are removing, the Installer removes the library.

Building a Staging Area

A staging area is a local copy of your Oracle distribution from which you can perform one or more installations. When you create a staging area, you can install and load software in distinct phases. When you install directly from the CD-ROM, you load and install the Oracle distribution in one session.

You should install directly from the CD-ROM if you are performing only one installation, or if you have insufficient disk space to support a staging area in addition to an installed Oracle8 system. Creating and installing from a permanent staging area requires approximately twice the disk space of installing from the CD-ROM.

After you have created a staging area, you cannot add new files to it. For example, you cannot add the files for a software patch to an existing staging area, then install from the area.


Installation problems typically fall into one of the following categories:

Insufficient Disk Space

If the session terminates because the Installer runs out of space during installation, check the ORACLE_HOME directory for any files installed prior to the crash. Remove the files for products you were installing.

After you have cleaned up ORACLE_HOME, you can use the df command to determine how much space is available. Options for resolving the problem include freeing up existing disk space, adding disk space, or installing a subset of the products you had planned to install.


When the Installer calculates space for transferring files into ORACLE_HOME, it accounts for product dependencies. If it detects there is insufficient space, the Installer issues a warning.

Files are uncompressed when they are transferred to ORACLE_HOME.

Symbolic Links

If you have created symbolic links in ORACLE_HOME to accommodate parts of the Oracle distribution, the Installer does not follow these links when it calculates space requirements.

If you are sure symbolic links are set up correctly and there is enough space in ORACLE_HOME to install the distribution, you can ignore the Installer warnings regarding insufficient space. Make sure the oracle account has read and write permissions on the linked directories.

Swap Space

The swap space available should be two to four times the physical RAM. If the UNIX system uses swap space for relinking, you probably need to increase the size of the swap space. If you run out of swap space during the relinking of product executables, the Installer returns an error message and aborts the session. You do not need to re-install in this case, but you must enlarge the swap space and relink.

Relinking Error Messages

The following error messages can occur during relinking:



sh: make: Not found




Operating system program (make) not available: install it or put it in PATH.




sh: sh (echodo): cc: Not found




Operating system program (cc) not available: install it or put it in your search path.




ld: fatal error: library not found: library_name




Operating system library not loaded: library_name indicates the name of the library you must install.


Undefined Symbols

Many relinking errors are caused by undefined symbols. Symbols may be undefined when Oracle Net8 protocol adapters are installed without the correct underlying network protocol.

For instance, putmesg and getmesg undefined symbols occur if you install the Oracle SPX/IPX Protocol Adapter, but do not have SPX/IPX installed.

Most of these errors can be corrected by de-installing and re-installing the Oracle system, without the protocol adapter for which you do not have the network software.

Staging Area Problems

The following issues can arise when installing from a staging area.

Adding Files

Do not attempt to add files to an existing staging area. If you want to add a product to an existing staging area, or if it is necessary to recreate a staging area, you must delete all existing files before using the Installer to create the new one.

User Errors

Following is a list of common pitfalls and indications:

"Cannot Create File"

If the Installer returns a message that it is unable to create a file, you are probably trying to install to a location where the oracle account does not have write permission. Use a shell window to change the permissions of the desired directory and retry the operation, or restart the Installer session and specify a different location where the oracle account has write permission.

"Cannot Find File"

If the Installer is unable to find a file, check to make sure that you specified the correct location for the CD-ROM, staging area, or link directory from which you are installing. In particular, make sure you did not specify the ORACLE_HOME directory (that is, your destination directory) as the installation source directory.

If the installation source is correctly specified and you are installing from a link directory or staging area, try recreating the installation source.

"Connection Not Allowed..."

Messages like the following can occur in a networked environment, when you are logging into a remote machine to run the Installer:

Xlib: connection to "unixdoc8:0.0" refused by server
Xlib: Client is not authorized to connect to Server

In a terminal window logged into your local machine, authorize the connection:

$ xhost + machine_with_Installer

Try restarting the Installer on the remote machine. If authorization problems persist, another possible workaround is to run the Installer in character mode, rather than Motif.

"Database Creation Failed"

If the Installer returns a message that it is unable to create the database, make sure there is not an Oracle instance running with a sid matching the sid (instance name) you specified during the Installation:

ps aux | grep _sid

ps ef | grep _sid

Check the $ORACLE_HOME/orainst/sql.log file for other possible problems.

Display Problems

If you have problems with the display, navigation buttons, or commands, check that the ORACLE_TERM environment variable is set correctly. A full table of ORACLE_TERM settings is available in Chapter 2, "Setting the Environment".

"Not Owner..."

Verify that $USER is the same as the userID of the current user (the oracle account). The following two commands should return the same user:

$ echo $USER
$ id


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