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Oracle8 Installation Guide
Release 8.0.5 for Intel-LINUX

A66251-02

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4
Configuring the Oracle8 System

You must perform certain post-installation steps and configure the Oracle8 system after completing the Installer session. This chapter describes the required steps, as well as some optional ones.

Tasks to Perform as the root User

Log in as the root user and perform the following tasks:

Run the root.sh Script
Run the catrep.sql Script (first-time installations only)
Create Additional LINUX Accounts
Verify Database File Security
Update the oratab File
Automate Database Startup and Shutdown (Optional)

Run the root.sh Script

During the Installer session, the Installer creates the root.sh script in the $ORACLE_HOME/orainst directory. Running the script sets the necessary file permissions for Oracle products, and performs other root-related configuration activities.

# cd $ORACLE_HOME/orainst
# ./root.sh  

If you have installed Oracle Parallel Server, you must run the root.sh script on every node in the cluster.

Messages Displayed by the root.sh Script

The root.sh script prompts you to confirm the environment before it performs any actions. If you need to reset the environment for any reason, terminate the root.sh script. If you terminate the script, you must re-run it; you do not need to run the Installer again.

Depending on the products you installed, messages are displayed to inform you of the progress of root.sh. You might also be prompted for user names and be given additional instructions.

Run the catrep.sql Script

When performing a first-time installation of Oracle8, you will need to run the catrep.sql script. This script loads the necessary packages and views for replication.

Create Additional LINUX Accounts

Each DBA on the system must have an account in the OSDBA group. Do not assign multiple users to the same account.

Create these LINUX accounts with your system administration utility (useradd).

Verify Database File Security

Sites using the Oracle8 Server configured in a way similar to a United States NCSC C2 or European ITSEC E3 security evaluation configuration must perform this task to ensure the integrity of the Oracle software installation. This task is optional if security is not an issue.

Many files must be protected to prevent unauthorized access to secure data. The recommended file modes and ownership are as follows:

Table 4-1 summarizes the directory and file permissions for different types of files.

Table 4-1 Access Permissions on Oracle Directories and Files
Directories/Files   Permissions   Comments  

All database, redo log, and control files (extensions for these files are typically .dbf, .log, and .ctl)

 

640

 

To maintain discretionary access to data, all databases, redo logs, and control files must be readable only by the oracle account and OSDBA group.

 

$ORACLE_HOME/bin/

  • the oracle executable, and some networking and security executables
  • all other executables
 

6751

751 or 755

 

The 6 sets the setuid bit so the executables run as the oracle user and dba group, regardless of who executes them.

Must be writable by the oracle software owner, and executable by all users.

 

$ORACLE_HOME/lib/

 

755

 

The directory is readable, writable, and executable by the owner, readable and executable by all other users.

 

All files under $ORACLE_HOME/lib/

 

644

 

Provides read-only access to all users.

 

$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/log

 

751

 

Restricts access to log files to the oracle account and OSDBA group.

 

Product subdirectories such as rdbms/lib or proc/lib, and the files in them

 

644

 

Provides read-only access to all users.

 

$ORACLE_HOME/network/trace

 

777 or 730

 

777 allows broad access to view and create trace files during development. Use 730 in a production environment to ensure that only members of the OSDBA group have access to trace files.

 

Administrative, SQL, and shell script files under product admin subdirectories

 

644

 

SQL scripts should typically be run as the SYS user.

 

Update the oratab File

If you used Server Manager to create a database manually instead of using the Installer, you must ensure the system configuration is reflected in the /etc/oratab file.

Add an entry for each Server instance on the system in the following format:

ORACLE_SID:ORACLE_HOME:{Y|N}

where Y or N indicates whether you want to activate the dbstart and dbshut scripts (see the following task). The Installer automatically adds an entry for each database it creates.

Automate Database Startup and Shutdown (Optional)

Automating database startup is optional, but automatic shutdown is recommended, because it guards against improper shutdown of the database.

The dbshut and dbstart scripts are located in the $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory, and can be used to automate database startup and shutdown.

The dbstart and dbshut scripts reference the same entries in the oratab file, so the scripts must apply to the same set of databases. For example, you cannot have dbstart automatically start up databases sid1, sid2, and sid3, and dbshut shut down only databases sid1 and sid2. You can, however, specify that dbshut shut down a set of databases while dbstart is not used at all. To do this, include the dbshut entry in the shutdown file but omit the dbstart entry from the system startup files.


See Also:

Check the documentation for the init command in your Intel-LINUX documentation for a description of system startup and shutdown procedures.

 

Automating Database Startup and Shutdown

To set up the dbstart and dbshut scripts so that they are called at system startup:

  1. Edit the /etc/oratab file.

Database entries in the oratab file appear in the following format:

ORACLE_SID:ORACLE_HOME:{Y|N}

where Y or N specifies whether you want the dbstart and dbshut scripts to start up and shut down the database.

  1. Find the entries for all the databases that you want to start up. They are identified by the sid in the first field. Change the last field for each to Y.
  2. Create a file named dbora in the /etc/rc.d/init.d directory (if it does not already exist).
  3. Create entries similar to the following at the end of the dbora file (if they do not already exist). Be sure to give the full path of the dbstart utility.
    # Set ORA_HOME to be equivalent to the ORACLE_HOME 
    # from which you wish to execute dbstart and
    # dbshut
    # set ORA_OWNER to the user id of the owner of the
    # Oracle database in ORA_HOME
    ORA_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/8.0.5
    ORA_OWNER=oracle
    if [! -f $ORA_HOME/bin/dbstart -o ! -d $ORA_HOME]
    then
    echo "Oracle startup: cannot start"
    exit
    fi
    case "$1" in
    'start')
    # Start the Oracle databases:
    su - $ORA_OWNER -c $ORA_HOME/bin/dbstart &
    ;;
    'stop')
    # Stop the Oracle databases:
    su - $ORA_OWNER -c $ORA_HOME/bin/dbshut &
    ;;
    esac
  4. Link dbora by entering:
    # ln -s /etc/rc.d/init.d/dbora /etc/rc0.d/K10dbora
    # ln -s /etc/rc.d/init.d/dbora /etc/rc2.d/S99dbora      
    

Tasks to Perform as the oracle User

Log in to the oracle account and perform the following tasks:

Update OS Account Startup Files
Apply Any Required Oracle Patches
Set Initialization Parameters

Update OS Account Startup Files

Update the startup files of the oracle account and the OS accounts of other Oracle users.

Set Environment Variables

If you did not define LD_LIBRARY_PATH, ORACLE_BASE, ORACLE_HOME, and ORACLE_SID in the startup file of the oracle account before installing the Oracle8 Server, do so now. Set these variables to the values you entered during the Installer session. Table 4-2 shows the default Installer values (which you might have modified).

Table 4-2 Environment Variable Settings
Environment Variable   Default Setting  

LD_LIBRARY_PATH

 

There is no default setting for LD_LIBRARY_PATH. See Chapter 2, "Setting the Environment" for requirements.

 

ORACLE_BASE

 

software_mount_point/app/oracle

 

ORACLE_HOME

 

$ORACLE_BASE/product/8.0.5

 

ORACLE_SID

 

There is no default setting for ORACLE_SID. If you do not remember the value you entered, you can find it listed in the $ORACLE_HOME/orainst/usrdfl.log file.

 

PATH

 

There is no default setting for PATH. Make sure the new $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory is included. See Chapter 2, "Setting the Environment" for other requirements.

 

Initialize the oraenv (coraenv) Script

Follow the instructions for a single-instance or multiple-instance configuration as appropriate.

Single-Instance Machine

On a single-instance machine, include the following commands to initialize the oraenv (coraenv) file at the end of the .profile or .login file of the oracle account.

For the Bourne or Korn shell:

ORAENV_ASK=NO
. /usr/local/bin/oraenv

For the C shell:

set ORAENV_ASK = NO
source /usr/local/bin/coraenv
unset ORAENV_ASK
Multiple-Instance Machine

On a multiple-instance machine, include a list of instance names and the commands necessary to initialize the oraenv (coraenv) file at the end of the startup file of the oracle account. The value of ORACLE_SID you defined before the Installer session is the default instance name.

For the Bourne or Korn shell:

SIDLIST=\Qawk -F:'/^[^#]/{printf "%s",$1}'/etc/oratab\Q
echo "SIDs on this machine are $SIDLIST"
ORAENV_ASK=
. /usr/local/bin/oraenv

For the C shell:

set sidlist=\Qawk -F:'/^[^#]/{printf"%s",$1}'/etc/oratab\Q
echo "SIDs on this machine are $sidlist"
unset ORAENV_ASK sidlist
source /usr/local/bin/coraenv

Update Other Oracle User Startup Files

To create the same environment for all Oracle users, update each user startup file to include:

(or source /usr/local/bin/coraenv for C shell users)

Apply Any Required Oracle Patches

The Oracle8 Server release which this installation guide accompanies might include software patches that must be applied to the Server or other products. If patches are provided, apply them according to the instructions in the patch release notes.

Set Initialization Parameters

Oracle initialization parameters determine the character of an Oracle8 Server instance and its connection to a database. Initialization parameters can be divided into two groups:

Configuration parameters define the relationship between the database and its environment and are specified in the configdb_name.ora file. Tuning parameters determine the variable characteristics of an Oracle8 Server instance, and are specified in the initsid.ora file.


See Also:

The Oracle8 Administrator's Reference for Intel UNIX contains comprehensive information on initialization parameters. The Oracle8 Reference describes all Oracle initialization parameters.

 

Activate the Default initsid.ora File

The Installer creates the initsid_0.ora file, which does not contain information on rollback segments but is otherwise identical to the default initsid.ora file in the distribution. Though rollback segments are active and online at this point, they are not listed in the initsid_0.ora file. The initsid_0.ora file remains active until you shut down the instance. The next time you start up the instance, the default initsid.ora file is activated.

The default initsid.ora file shipped with the distribution is located in the $ORACLE_BASE/admin/sid/pfile directory. The file contains settings for small, medium, and large databases, with the settings for medium and large databases commented out. The size settings are relative to each other, but do not represent an empirical size of the database.

Modify initsid.ora Parameters

You can modify the initialization parameters in the initsid.ora (not initsid_0.ora) with a LINUX text editor. You can activate the modified initsid.ora file by shutting down and restarting the database.

Do not use symbolic character representations such as question marks (?) for ORACLE_HOME in parameter files.

Post-Installation for Individual Oracle Products

Perform the product-specific steps as necessary for your installation.

If you want to access online documentation before you configure your Oracle installation, instructions for accessing that documentation are on page 4-17. It is not necessary to read product documentation before completing the configuration tasks in this manual, but more sophisticated tuning requires information in the product documentation.

Post-Installation Steps for Oracle8 Server

Recovery Manager

Recovery Manager is an automated recovery utility that is installed as part of the Oracle8 Server. It stores information in a recovery catalog in a separate Oracle8 database. This second Oracle8 Server should be installed on a separate machine to provide maximum fault resistance.


Note:

Recovery Manager can also be used in a restricted mode without a recovery catalog, if the installation and maintenance of a second Oracle8 Server is impractical.

 

Perform the following steps if you want to create a recovery catalog:

  1. Install an Oracle8 Server on a separate machine from any other Oracle8 Server, and create a database for the recovery catalog.

If you choose not to write a custom script to create the database, create the default database with the Installer. The default database is adequate for the recovery catalog.

  1. Create a user in the recovery catalog database to be the Recovery Manager user.
  2. As the Recovery Manager user, run the catrman.sql script in the $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin directory. Run the script using Server Manager line mode (not using SQL*Plus).

Multi-Threaded Server

Servers configured with MTS require a higher setting for the initialization parameter SHARED_POOL_SIZE. If you specified MTS during the Installer session, you should raise SHARED_POOL_SIZE in the initsid.ora file. In general, you should add 1 KB for each anticipated concurrent user.

Post-Installation Steps for Oracle Precompilers

Pro*C/C++

The configuration files ottcfg.cfg and pcscfg.cfg in $ORACLE_HOME/precomp/admin must be customized for your environment before using Pro*C. Use a text editor of your choice to delete the shipped contents of these files and customize them to your environment.

The modified system header files, a.out.h, limits.h, sys/ipc.h, mcdx.h, mcd.h located in the $ORACLE_HOME/precomp/public directory are required by Pro*C to compile a .pc file to a .c file. These header files are not required for compiling a .c file to an object file or an executable file.

Post-Installation Steps for Oracle Net8

Configuring your Oracle network is beyond the scope of this manual, and is covered in detail in the Oracle Net8 Administrator's Guide. However, to configure a minimal network before exploring the new features in Net8, use the following procedure:

  1. The Installer creates a basic listener.ora file for the Server and places it in the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/ directory. The file specifies a TCP/IP listener on port number 1521. Check the status of the listener.
    $ lsnrctl status
    
    

If the listener is running, the output of the lsnrctl status command will be similar to the following:

Connecting to (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=IPC)(KEY=PNPKEY))
STATUS of the LISTENER------------------------Alias listenerVersion TNSLSNR for Linux: Version 8.0.5.0.0 - Production...

If the listener is not running, start it up:

$ lsnrctl start listener
  1. Reserve a port for the Net8 listener by making the following entry in the /etc/services file:
listener 1521/tcp #Oracle Net8 listener
  1. After creating a tnsnames.ora file, copy it to the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directories of client machines.
  2. Test the connection by installing SQL*Plus on a client machine and attempting to connect to the Server:
    $ sqlplus username/password@service_name
    

At this point you have established network connectivity over TCP/IP. For more advanced network configuration, refer to the Oracle Net8 Administrator's Guide.

Post-Installation Steps for Oracle Names Server (Optional)

Oracle Names Server is installed automatically with Oracle Net8. If you want to configure your network to use Oracle Names Server, do the following:

  1. Use the Net8 Assistant to create the Oracle Names configuration files sqlnet.ora and names.ora.
  1. If you are using well-known Names Servers, verify they are correctly aliased in the /etc/hosts file of all network nodes.
  2. If you are using your machine as the server, start the Names Server process:
$ namesctl startup
  1. Check the Names Server process:
$ namesctl status

Post-Installation Steps for Oracle Protocol Adapters

All Protocol Adapters

Perform the following steps after installing any Oracle protocol adapter.

  1. Verify that you have created and installed the necessary configuration files for the network.
  1. To start the listener automatically when the machine is rebooted, log in as the root user and add a line similar to the following in the system startup file:
su - oracle -c "lsnrctl start"

On LINUX, the startup file is /etc/rc.d/init.d/dbora.


Note:

This procedure fails if the TNS_ADMIN environment variable is not set in the .profile or.login file of the oracle account, or if listener.ora is not in the default location ($ORACLE_HOME/network/admin).

 

  1. If you have a client/server configuration, you must set the TWO_TASK environment variable on the client to point to the server. Set the TWO_TASK environment variable on the client machines to the service name for the server (available from the tnsnames.ora file).
  2. Start the listener process:
$ lsnrctl start
  1. Check the listener process:
$ lsnrctl status
  1. As the oracle account, start the Server Manager, then test the connection with a loopback:
    $ svrmgrl
    SVRMGR> CONNECT username/password@service_name

To test the connection from SQL*Plus:

$ sqlplus username/password@service_name

Post-Installation Steps for Oracle Intelligent Agent

Configure and Start the Database Subagent

Configuration and startup of the database subagent (the Oracle Intelligent Agent) is described in the Oracle Enterprise Manager Configuration Guide.

Post-Installation Steps for Oracle ConText Cartridge

The Oracle ConText Cartridge requires a significant amount of database space. If you intend to install the ConText Cartridge, take the following space requirements into account

Table 4-3 Space Requirements for Oracle ConText Cartridge
Item   Size  

ConText Data Dictionary1

 

5 MB

 

ConText Proper Names Table2

 

140 MB

 

ConText Demonstration Tables2

 

negligible

 
1 Required for the ConText Cartridge
2 Optional with ConText Cartridge
 
:

Use the following procedure to install and configure the ConText Cartridge:

  1. Verify that tablespaces exist to serve as default and temporary tablespaces for the ConText Cartridge. Neither the ConText data dictionary nor the proper names table should be placed in the SYSTEM tablespace. If tablespaces for ConText Cartridge do not exist, create them before proceeding.


    See Also:

    Oracle8 SQL Reference for information on creating tablespaces.

     

  1. Verify that the database is up and running, and that SQL*Plus is installed.
  2. Start the Installer and select the Install New Product - Create DB Objects option.
  3. At the Software Asset Manager screen, select only the ConText Cartridge, then select the Install button.
  4. Answer the remaining prompts for installing the ConText Cartridge.
  5. Make the following changes to the initsid.ora file after completing the Installer session:
    • set the TEXT_ENABLE parameter to TRUE
    • set the SHARED_POOL_SIZE parameter to at least 9000000 bytes.

Accessing Installed Documentation

Documentation is installable in HTML or PDF (Adobe Acrobat) formats. To access the documentation, open the welcome.htm or index.pdf file at the top of your documentation hierarchy. The Installer installs documentation files according to the following rules:

Generic documentation is installed directly under the ORACLE_DOC directory. Operating system-specific documents are installed under the $ORACLE_DOC/server.805 directory.

You can also access documentation directly from the CD-ROM.


See Also:

Information on accessing documentation directly from CD-ROM is in the insert for the Documentation CD-ROM.

 




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