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Using Oracle8


Welcome to Using Oracle8! This book identifies the many functions an Oracle DBA needs to perform on an Oracle8 database and explains how to do them as efficiently and effectively as possible. You learn about the key functions of database administration, including installing the product, designing and creating a database and its tablespaces, designing and creating the tables and other objects that make up an Oracle database, designing and executing a good backup strategy with a recovery methodology, and monitoring and tuning performance. You also learn about creating and maintaining users and performing an upgrade to Oracle8, as well as other tasks that you may need in your position as DBA. You also learn when and how to use the various tools Oracle8 provides to assist you in database management, performance monitoring and tuning, data loading, backup and recovery, and data export and import.

The book is designed to let you read about a topic at length when you have the time and the inclination, or to use as a quick reference guide when you need an answer to a pressing technical question or an example to follow when performing a specific task.

Using Oracle8 contains cross-references to related topics so that you can look at all aspects of a topic, even if they're covered in different chapters. These cross-references also enable you to read the book in any order you choose. If you run across a subject you don't fully understand, you can easily switch your attention to the area(s) identified and carry on your reading there. Where applicable, the book also references the Oracle documentation materials, so you can find even more detail if you need it.

Don't forget to keep this book handy at work, just in case you need to check something in a hurry that you haven't read about yet or is a new topic to you. Be sure also to use the tear-out card inside the book's cover. It contains some of the most common, but difficult to remember, information you'll need.

Who Should Use This Book

You'll get the most out of this book if you have some background in the SQL language and some knowledge or experience with relational databases. Because Oracle's SQL language is based on the ANSI standard, it's not discussed in detail in this book, but numerous examples use SQL statements. The theory of relational databases is also outside the scope of this book, as are the internal structures within Oracle, except where they're needed to help you understand how or why to perform a specific task.

This book is intended primarily for DBAs who have some knowledge of relational databases. Much of this book will be familiar if you've worked with earlier releases of Oracle-but you'll find the new Oracle8 features discussed. If you've worked with other relational databases, you may need to refer to the glossary if you find brand new terms or terms that have different meanings in Oracle. If you haven't worked with any relational databases, you should expect to follow the frequent cross-references to sections of the book; this will fill in background information as you read about a topic.

Why This Book?

Have you ever purchased a Using book from Que? The Using books have proven invaluable to readers as both learning guides and as references for many years. The Using series is an industry leader and has practically become an industry standard. We encourage and receive feedback from readers all the time, and consider and implement their suggestions whenever possible.

This book isn't a compiled authority on all the features of Oracle8; instead, it's a streamlined, conversational approach for using Oracle8 productively and efficiently. This book has many features:

How This Book Is Organized

Using Oracle8 has task-oriented, easy-to-navigate tutorials and reference information presented in a logical progression from simple to complex tasks. It covers features of the program you use in your daily work. Examples are real life. You can work through the book lesson by lesson, or you can find specific information when you need to perform a job quickly.

Using Oracle8 is divided into nine parts:

Now look at the detailed table of contents, decide what you want to read now or in the near future, and begin getting comfortable with Oracle8.

Conventions Used in This Book

The following items are some of the features that will make this book easier for you to use:


Information on tablespace usage for different segment types, see page xxx

ALTER DATABASE [database_name]
     ADD LOGFILE [GROUP [group_number]]
     filename [SIZE size_integer [K|M]] [REUSE]

About the Authors

David Austin has been in the data processing profession for almost 25 years. He had worked with many database architectures, including hierarchical, net-work, and relational, before becoming an Oracle DBA about 10 years ago. For the past five years, David has worked for Oracle Corporation, where he's now employed as a senior principal curriculum developer. His previous positions at Oracle include senior principal consultant and senior principal instructor. David has completed multiple Masters programs with Oracle Education and is a Certified Oracle Database Administrator. David is a contributing author for Que's Special Edition Using Oracle8 and wrote Chapters 3, 5-8, 10-11, 16-17, and the glossary for this book. He obtained both of his degrees-a B.A. with a double major in mathematics and English and a minor in computer science and an M.S. in applied mathematics-from the University of Colorado.

Vijay Lunawat is a technical specialist with Oracle Corporation; he resides in Orlando, Florida. He has a bachelor's degree in electronics engineering. He has worked with Oracle databases for more than 10 years as a developer, database administrator, consultant, and support. A specialist in Oracle Parallel Server, he's now working with the Center of Expertise in Oracle Support Services. He develops and frequently teaches Oracle Internals classes at Oracle. He was a contributing author for Que's Special Edition Using Oracle8 and wrote Chapters 1, 13, 18, 27, and Appendix A for this book.

Meghraj Thakkar works as a senior technical analyst at Oracle Corporation. He has been working with various Oracle products for the past six years. He has a master's in computer science and a bachelor's in electronics engineering. He has several industry vendor certifications, including Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE), Novell Certified ECNE, and Lotus Certified Notes Consultant. He has taught several courses at the University of California, Irvine; developed and presented a two-day course, "Supporting Oracle on Windows NT," to internal Oracle employees; and presented two papers at the ECO'98 held in New York City in March 1998. He also coauthored several books for Macmillan Computer Publishing- Special Edition Using Oracle8, Oracle8 Server Unleashed, and Oracle8 for DBAs-and contributed Chapters 2, 4, 14, and 21-23 for this book.

Tomas Gasper , the author of Chapters 9, 12, and 20, is an Oracle DBA for Energizer Battery Company in St. Louis, Missouri. He has worked in a variety of system support roles, including DBA, UNIX, and Windows NT administrator and systems programmer. As a refugee from the defense industry, Tomas enjoys learning about exotic and unique computer systems. His hobbies include experimenting with Linux systems, Web-based applications, and, of course, exploring the Internet. Tomas can be reached at tgasper@highlandil.com or TomasM.Gasper@energizer.com.

Ari Kaplan, the author of Chapter 25, is an independent computer consultant specializing in Oracle product design, development, and management. Ari, coauthor of Que's Special Edition Using Oracle8 and Waite Group Press's Oracle8 How-To, both for Macmillan Computer Publishing, has played pivotal roles in implementing some of the nation's largest and most visible Oracle applications for various industries. Ari worked for Oracle before becoming a consultant in 1994, and since 1990 he has worked as a consultant for several Major League Baseball clubs (currently for the Montreal Expos), where he has developed and managed their scouting department's software systems. Ari graduated from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and was granted the school's prestigious "Alumni of the Decade" distinction for his contributions in the computer industry. He has appeared on NBC's Today Show and CNN, and is a frequent guest speaker on Oracle in the United States and abroad. Ari lives in Chicago and can be reached at akaplan@interaccess.com or through his Web site of Oracle tips at http://homepage.interaccess.com/~akaplan.

Raman Batra, the author of Chapters 24 and 26, is a database administrator for the Cessna Aircraft Company in Wichita, Kansas, where he has been working since 1994. In the past, Raman has developed client/server and intranet applications using Developer/2000 Forms, Pro*C, and Oracle Web Application Server. As a DBA, he is administering Designer/2000 applications and application suites for engineering, supply chain, and parts distribution systems on Oracle7 and 8. He is also designing an advanced replication architecture on Oracle8 for failover and disaster recovery. Raman is a member of the Oracle Technology Network, ACM, IOUGA, and the Wichita Area Oracle Users Group. Raman can be reached at rrbatra@feist.com.

Joseph Duer, the author of Chapters 15 and 19, is a technical analyst and Oracle database administrator at a technology-driven corporation based in southern Connecticut. He specializes in Web development using Oracle Database Server and Oracle Application Server. He has developed object-oriented systems that utilize C++, Java, and JavaScript, as well as Oracle Application Server's Java, PL/SQL, and VRML cartridges. He can be reached via email at joeduer@ix.netcom.com and via his Web page at



From David Austin:

Thanks to the many professionals who have helped and encouraged me in my career and my work on this book, particularly my various managers, instructors, and colleagues at Oracle, including Deborah West, Chris Pirie, Nick Evans, Vijay Venkatachalam, Larry Mix, Beth Winslow, Sue Jang, Scott Gossett, and Scott Heisey. I would also like to say thank you to some of my earliest mentors in this business-Bob Klein, Donald Miklich, and Roland Sweet, wherever they might be.
Thanks also to the various editors at Que who helped shepherd this work from its inception to the book you now have in your hands, with a special mention for Angela Kozlowski and Susan Dunn. I also want to thank my coauthors, without whose efforts this work could never have been finished.
Finally, a thank you to my family for putting up with the long hours I spent ignoring them while working on this project. My wife, Lillian, is now bracing for the revisions, while my kitten is just happy that she once again gets some petting when she sits in my lap.

From Vijay Lunawat:

Most thanks go to my two children, Siddharth and Sanchi, and my wife, Sushma, for their patience and for putting up with my long and weekend working hours while I was writing for this book.

From Meghraj Thakkar:

I would like to give a special thanks to my wife, Komal, for her patience and understanding.

From Raman Batra:

To my lovely wife, Sarika, for her understanding and admirable patience in keeping my daughter, Nikita, away from me, when I was writing. Nikita had a real hard time understanding why Daddy was working with such "boring" text stuff with no music, when she could be watching her Winnie the Pooh CD on Daddy's PC.

From Joe Duer:

I would like to thank once again the Tuesday night crew at Shelton EMS: Jason, Betty, John, and Denise. Your help covering all the shifts I missed because I was writing is greatly appreciated.
I would like to thank everyone at Que-in particular, Angela Kozlowski and Susan Dunn-for their help and guidance during the development of this book.

Tell Us What You Think!

As the reader of this book, you are our most important critic and commentator. We value your opinion and want to know what we're doing right, what we could do better, what areas you'd like to see us publish in, and any other words of wisdom you're willing to pass our way.

As the Executive Editor for the Client/Server Database Team at Macmillan Computer Publishing, I welcome your comments. You can fax, email, or write me directly to let me know what you did or didn't like about this book-as well as what we can do to make our books stronger.

Please note that I cannot help you with technical problems related to the topic of this book, and that due to the high volume of mail I receive, I might not be able to reply to every message.

When you write, please be sure to include this book's title and author as well as your name and phone or fax number. I will carefully review your comments and share them with the author and editors who worked on the book.

E-mail: cs_db@mcp.com
Mail: Executive Editor
Client/Server Database Team
Macmillan Computer Publishing
201 West 103rd Street
Indianapolis, IN 46290 USA

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