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24 MySQL APIs

This chapter describes the APIs available for MySQL, where to get them, and how to use them. The C API is the most extensively covered, as it was developed by the MySQL team, and is the basis for most of the other APIs.

24.1 MySQL C API

The C API code is distributed with MySQL. It is included in the mysqlclient library and allows C programs to access a database.

Many of the clients in the MySQL source distribution are written in C. If you are looking for examples that demonstrate how to use the C API, take a look at these clients. You can find these in the clients directory in the MySQL source distribution.

Most of the other client APIs (all except Java) use the mysqlclient library to communicate with the MySQL server. This means that, for example, you can take advantage of many of the same environment variables that are used by other client programs, because they are referenced from the library. See section 15.1 Overview of the Different MySQL Programs, for a list of these variables.

The client has a maximum communication buffer size. The size of the buffer that is allocated initially (16K bytes) is automatically increased up to the maximum size (the maximum is 16M). Because buffer sizes are increased only as demand warrants, simply increasing the default maximum limit does not in itself cause more resources to be used. This size check is mostly a check for erroneous queries and communication packets.

The communication buffer must be large enough to contain a single SQL statement (for client-to-server traffic) and one row of returned data (for server-to-client traffic). Each thread's communication buffer is dynamically enlarged to handle any query or row up to the maximum limit. For example, if you have BLOB values that contain up to 16M of data, you must have a communication buffer limit of at least 16M (in both server and client). The client's default maximum is 16M, but the default maximum in the server is 1M. You can increase this by changing the value of the max_allowed_packet parameter when the server is started. See section 13.2.4 Tuning Server Parameters.

The MySQL server shrinks each communication buffer to net_buffer_length bytes after each query. For clients, the size of the buffer associated with a connection is not decreased until the connection is closed, at which time client memory is reclaimed.

For programming with threads, consult the 'how to make a thread-safe client' chapter. See section 24.1.5 How to Make a Thread-safe Client.

24.1.1 C API Datatypes

MYSQL
This structure represents a handle to one database connection. It is used for almost all MySQL functions.
MYSQL_RES
This structure represents the result of a query that returns rows (SELECT, SHOW, DESCRIBE, EXPLAIN). The information returned from a query is called the result set in the remainder of this section.
MYSQL_ROW
This is a type-safe representation of one row of data. It is currently implemented as an array of counted byte strings. (You cannot treat these as null-terminated strings if field values may contain binary data, because such values may contain null bytes internally.) Rows are obtained by calling mysql_fetch_row().
MYSQL_FIELD
This structure contains information about a field, such as the field's name, type, and size. Its members are described in more detail below. You may obtain the MYSQL_FIELD structures for each field by calling mysql_fetch_field() repeatedly. Field values are not part of this structure; they are contained in a MYSQL_ROW structure.
MYSQL_FIELD_OFFSET
This is a type-safe representation of an offset into a MySQL field list. (Used by mysql_field_seek().) Offsets are field numbers within a row, beginning at zero.
my_ulonglong
The type used for the number of rows and for mysql_affected_rows(), mysql_num_rows(), and mysql_insert_id(). This type provides a range of 0 to 1.84e19. On some systems, attempting to print a value of type my_ulonglong will not work. To print such a value, convert it to unsigned long and use a %lu print format. Example:
printf (Number of rows: %lu\n", (unsigned long) mysql_num_rows(result));

The MYSQL_FIELD structure contains the members listed below:

char * name
The name of the field, as a null-terminated string.
char * table
The name of the table containing this field, if it isn't a calculated field. For calculated fields, the table value is an empty string.
char * def
The default value of this field, as a null-terminated string. This is set only if you use mysql_list_fields().
enum enum_field_types type
The type of the field. The type value may be one of the following:
Type value Type meaning
FIELD_TYPE_TINY TINYINT field
FIELD_TYPE_SHORT SMALLINT field
FIELD_TYPE_LONG INTEGER field
FIELD_TYPE_INT24 MEDIUMINT field
FIELD_TYPE_LONGLONG BIGINT field
FIELD_TYPE_DECIMAL DECIMAL or NUMERIC field
FIELD_TYPE_FLOAT FLOAT field
FIELD_TYPE_DOUBLE DOUBLE or REAL field
FIELD_TYPE_TIMESTAMP TIMESTAMP field
FIELD_TYPE_DATE DATE field
FIELD_TYPE_TIME TIME field
FIELD_TYPE_DATETIME DATETIME field
FIELD_TYPE_YEAR YEAR field
FIELD_TYPE_STRING String (CHAR or VARCHAR) field
FIELD_TYPE_BLOB BLOB or TEXT field (use max_length to determine the maximum length)
FIELD_TYPE_SET SET field
FIELD_TYPE_ENUM ENUM field
FIELD_TYPE_NULL NULL-type field
FIELD_TYPE_CHAR Deprecated; use FIELD_TYPE_TINY instead
You can use the IS_NUM() macro to test whether or not a field has a numeric type. Pass the type value to IS_NUM() and it will evaluate to TRUE if the field is numeric:
if (IS_NUM(field->type))
    printf("Field is numeric\n");
unsigned int length
The width of the field, as specified in the table definition.
unsigned int max_length
The maximum width of the field for the result set (the length of the longest field value for the rows actually in the result set). If you use mysql_store_result() or mysql_list_fields(), this contains the maximum length for the field. If you use mysql_use_result(), the value of this variable is zero.
unsigned int flags
Different bit-flags for the field. The flags value may have zero or more of the following bits set:
Flag value Flag meaning
NOT_NULL_FLAG Field can't be NULL
PRI_KEY_FLAG Field is part of a primary key
UNIQUE_KEY_FLAG Field is part of a unique key
MULTIPLE_KEY_FLAG Field is part of a non-unique key
UNSIGNED_FLAG Field has the UNSIGNED attribute
ZEROFILL_FLAG Field has the ZEROFILL attribute
BINARY_FLAG Field has the BINARY attribute
AUTO_INCREMENT_FLAG Field has the AUTO_INCREMENT attribute
ENUM_FLAG Field is an ENUM (deprecated)
BLOB_FLAG Field is a BLOB or TEXT (deprecated)
TIMESTAMP_FLAG Field is a TIMESTAMP (deprecated)
Use of the BLOB_FLAG, ENUM_FLAG, and TIMESTAMP_FLAG flags is deprecated because they indicate the type of a field rather than an attribute of its type. It is preferable to test field->type against FIELD_TYPE_BLOB, FIELD_TYPE_ENUM, or FIELD_TYPE_TIMESTAMP instead. The example below illustrates a typical use of the flags value:
if (field->flags & NOT_NULL_FLAG)
    printf("Field can't be null\n");
You may use the following convenience macros to determine the boolean status of the flags value:
IS_NOT_NULL(flags) True if this field is defined as NOT NULL
IS_PRI_KEY(flags) True if this field is a primary key
IS_BLOB(flags) True if this field is a BLOB or TEXT (deprecated; test field->type instead)
unsigned int decimals
The number of decimals for numeric fields.

24.1.2 C API Function Overview

The functions available in the C API are listed below and are described in greater detail in the next section. See section 24.1.3 C API Function Descriptions.

mysql_affected_rows() Returns the number of rows changed/deleted/inserted by the last UPDATE, DELETE, or INSERT query.
mysql_close() Closes a server connection.
mysql_connect() Connects to a MySQL server. This function is deprecated; use mysql_real_connect() instead.
mysql_change_user() Changes user and database on an open connection.
mysql_character_set_name() Returns the name of the default character set for the connection.
mysql_create_db() Creates a database. This function is deprecated; use the SQL command CREATE DATABASE instead.
mysql_data_seek() Seeks to an arbitrary row in a query result set.
mysql_debug() Does a DBUG_PUSH with the given string.
mysql_drop_db() Drops a database. This function is deprecated; use the SQL command DROP DATABASE instead.
mysql_dump_debug_info() Makes the server write debug information to the log.
mysql_eof() Determines whether or not the last row of a result set has been read. This function is deprecated; mysql_errno() or mysql_error() may be used instead.
mysql_errno() Returns the error number for the most recently invoked MySQL function.
mysql_error() Returns the error message for the most recently invoked MySQL function.
mysql_real_escape_string() Escapes special characters in a string for use in a SQL statement taking into account the current charset of the connection.
mysql_escape_string() Escapes special characters in a string for use in a SQL statement.
mysql_fetch_field() Returns the type of the next table field.
mysql_fetch_field_direct() Returns the type of a table field, given a field number.
mysql_fetch_fields() Returns an array of all field structures.
mysql_fetch_lengths() Returns the lengths of all columns in the current row.
mysql_fetch_row() Fetches the next row from the result set.
mysql_field_seek() Puts the column cursor on a specified column.
mysql_field_count() Returns the number of result columns for the most recent query.
mysql_field_tell() Returns the position of the field cursor used for the last mysql_fetch_field().
mysql_free_result() Frees memory used by a result set.
mysql_get_client_info() Returns client version information.
mysql_get_host_info() Returns a string describing the connection.
mysql_get_proto_info() Returns the protocol version used by the connection.
mysql_get_server_info() Returns the server version number.
mysql_info() Returns information about the most recently executed query.
mysql_init() Gets or initializes a MYSQL structure.
mysql_insert_id() Returns the ID generated for an AUTO_INCREMENT column by the previous query.
mysql_kill() Kills a given thread.
mysql_list_dbs() Returns database names matching a simple regular expression.
mysql_list_fields() Returns field names matching a simple regular expression.
mysql_list_processes() Returns a list of the current server threads.
mysql_list_tables() Returns table names matching a simple regular expression.
mysql_num_fields() Returns the number of columns in a result set.
mysql_num_rows() Returns the number of rows in a result set.
mysql_options() Sets connect options for mysql_connect().
mysql_ping() Checks whether or not the connection to the server is working, reconnecting as necessary.
mysql_query() Executes a SQL query specified as a null-terminated string.
mysql_real_connect() Connects to a MySQL server.
mysql_real_query() Executes a SQL query specified as a counted string.
mysql_reload() Tells the server to reload the grant tables.
mysql_row_seek() Seeks to a row in a result set, using value returned from mysql_row_tell().
mysql_row_tell() Returns the row cursor position.
mysql_select_db() Selects a database.
mysql_shutdown() Shuts down the database server.
mysql_stat() Returns the server status as a string.
mysql_store_result() Retrieves a complete result set to the client.
mysql_thread_id() Returns the current thread ID.
mysql_thread_save() Returns 1 if the clients are compiled as thread-safe.
mysql_use_result() Initiates a row-by-row result set retrieval.

To connect to the server, call mysql_init() to initialize a connection handler, then call mysql_real_connect() with that handler (along with other information such as the hostname, user name, and password). Upon connection, mysql_real_connect() sets the reconnect flag (part of the MYSQL structure) to a value of 1. This flag indicates, in the event that a query cannot be performed because of a lost connection, to try reconnecting to the server before giving up. When you are done with the connection, call mysql_close() to terminate it.

While a connection is active, the client may send SQL queries to the server using mysql_query() or mysql_real_query(). The difference between the two is that mysql_query() expects the query to be specified as a null-terminated string whereas mysql_real_query() expects a counted string. If the string contains binary data (which may include null bytes), you must use mysql_real_query().

For each non-SELECT query (for example, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE), you can find out how many rows were changed (affected) by calling mysql_affected_rows().

For SELECT queries, you retrieve the selected rows as a result set. (Note that some statements are SELECT-like in that they return rows. These include SHOW, DESCRIBE, and EXPLAIN. They should be treated the same way as SELECT statements.)

There are two ways for a client to process result sets. One way is to retrieve the entire result set all at once by calling mysql_store_result(). This function acquires from the server all the rows returned by the query and stores them in the client. The second way is for the client to initiate a row-by-row result set retrieval by calling mysql_use_result(). This function initializes the retrieval, but does not actually get any rows from the server.

In both cases, you access rows by calling mysql_fetch_row(). With mysql_store_result(), mysql_fetch_row() accesses rows that have already been fetched from the server. With mysql_use_result(), mysql_fetch_row() actually retrieves the row from the server. Information about the size of the data in each row is available by calling mysql_fetch_lengths().

After you are done with a result set, call mysql_free_result() to free the memory used for it.

The two retrieval mechanisms are complementary. Client programs should choose the approach that is most appropriate for their requirements. In practice, clients tend to use mysql_store_result() more commonly.

An advantage of mysql_store_result() is that because the rows have all been fetched to the client, you not only can access rows sequentially, you can move back and forth in the result set using mysql_data_seek() or mysql_row_seek() to change the current row position within the result set. You can also find out how many rows there are by calling mysql_num_rows(). On the other hand, the memory requirements for mysql_store_result() may be very high for large result sets and you are more likely to encounter out-of-memory conditions.

An advantage of mysql_use_result() is that the client requires less memory for the result set because it maintains only one row at a time (and because there is less allocation overhead, mysql_use_result() can be faster). Disadvantages are that you must process each row quickly to avoid tying up the server, you don't have random access to rows within the result set (you can only access rows sequentially), and you don't know how many rows are in the result set until you have retrieved them all. Furthermore, you must retrieve all the rows even if you determine in mid-retrieval that you've found the information you were looking for.

The API makes it possible for clients to respond appropriately to queries (retrieving rows only as necessary) without knowing whether or not the query is a SELECT. You can do this by calling mysql_store_result() after each mysql_query() (or mysql_real_query()). If the result set call succeeds, the query was a SELECT and you can read the rows. If the result set call fails, call mysql_field_count() to determine whether or not a result was actually to be expected. If mysql_field_count() returns zero, the query returned no data (indicating that it was an INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, etc.), and was not expected to return rows. If mysql_field_count() is non-zero, the query should have returned rows, but didn't. This indicates that the query was a SELECT that failed. See the description for mysql_field_count() for an example of how this can be done.

Both mysql_store_result() and mysql_use_result() allow you to obtain information about the fields that make up the result set (the number of fields, their names and types, etc.). You can access field information sequentially within the row by calling mysql_fetch_field() repeatedly, or by field number within the row by calling mysql_fetch_field_direct(). The current field cursor position may be changed by calling mysql_field_seek(). Setting the field cursor affects subsequent calls to mysql_fetch_field(). You can also get information for fields all at once by calling mysql_fetch_fields().

For detecting and reporting errors, MySQL provides access to error information by means of the mysql_errno() and mysql_error() functions. These return the error code or error message for the most recently invoked function that can succeed or fail, allowing you to determine when an error occurred and what it was.

24.1.3 C API Function Descriptions

In the descriptions below, a parameter or return value of NULL means NULL in the sense of the C programming language, not a MySQL NULL value.

Functions that return a value generally return a pointer or an integer. Unless specified otherwise, functions returning a pointer return a non-NULL value to indicate success or a NULL value to indicate an error, and functions returning an integer return zero to indicate success or non-zero to indicate an error. Note that ``non-zero'' means just that. Unless the function description says otherwise, do not test against a value other than zero:

if (result)                   /* correct */
    ... error ...

if (result < 0)               /* incorrect */
    ... error ...

if (result == -1)             /* incorrect */
    ... error ...

When a function returns an error, the Errors subsection of the function description lists the possible types of errors. You can find out which of these occurred by calling mysql_errno(). A string representation of the error may be obtained by calling mysql_error().

24.1.3.1 mysql_affected_rows()

my_ulonglong mysql_affected_rows(MYSQL *mysql)

24.1.3.2 Description

Returns the number of rows changed by the last UPDATE, deleted by the last DELETE or inserted by the last INSERT statement. May be called immediately after mysql_query() for UPDATE, DELETE, or INSERT statements. For SELECT statements, mysql_affected_rows() works like mysql_num_rows().

24.1.3.3 Return Values

An integer greater than zero indicates the number of rows affected or retrieved. Zero indicates that no records where updated for an UPDATE statement, no rows matched the WHERE clause in the query or that no query has yet been executed. -1 indicates that the query returned an error or that, for a SELECT query, mysql_affected_rows() was called prior to calling mysql_store_result().

24.1.3.4 Errors

None.

24.1.3.5 Example

mysql_query(&mysql,"UPDATE products SET cost=cost*1.25 WHERE group=10");
printf("%ld products updated",(long) mysql_affected_rows(&mysql));

If one specifies the flag CLIENT_FOUND_ROWS when connecting to mysqld, mysql_affected_rows() will return the number of rows matched by the WHERE statement for UPDATE statements.

Note that when one uses a REPLACE command, mysql_affected_rows() will return 2 if the new row replaced and old row. This is because in this case one row was inserted and then the duplicate was deleted.

24.1.3.6 mysql_close()

void mysql_close(MYSQL *mysql)

24.1.3.7 Description

Closes a previously opened connection. mysql_close() also deallocates the connection handle pointed to by mysql if the handle was allocated automatically by mysql_init() or mysql_connect().

24.1.3.8 Return Values

None.

24.1.3.9 Errors

None.

24.1.3.10 mysql_connect()

MYSQL *mysql_connect(MYSQL *mysql, const char *host, const char *user, const char *passwd)

24.1.3.11 Description

This function is deprecated. It is preferable to use mysql_real_connect() instead.

mysql_connect() attempts to establish a connection to a MySQL database engine running on host. mysql_connect() must complete successfully before you can execute any of the other API functions, with the exception of mysql_get_client_info().

The meanings of the parameters are the same as for the corresponding parameters for mysql_real_connect() with the difference that the connection parameter may be NULL. In this case the C API allocates memory for the connection structure automatically and frees it when you call mysql_close(). The disadvantage of this approach is that you can't retrieve an error message if the connection fails. (To get error information from mysql_errno() or mysql_error(), you must provide a valid MYSQL pointer.)

24.1.3.12 Return Values

Same as for mysql_real_connect().

24.1.3.13 Errors

Same as for mysql_real_connect().

24.1.3.14 mysql_change_user()

my_bool mysql_change_user(MYSQL *mysql, const char *user, const char *password, const char *db)

24.1.3.15 Description

Changes the user and causes the database specified by db to become the default (current) database on the connection specified by mysql. In subsequent queries, this database is the default for table references that do not include an explicit database specifier.

This function was introduced in MySQL Version 3.23.3.

mysql_change_user() fails unless the connected user can be authenticated or if he doesn't have permission to use the database. In this case the user and database are not changed

The db parameter may be set to NULL if you don't want to have a default database.

24.1.3.16 Return values

Zero for success. Non-zero if an error occurred.

24.1.3.17 Errors

The same that you can get from mysql_real_connect().

CR_COMMANDS_OUT_OF_SYNC
Commands were executed in an improper order.
CR_SERVER_GONE_ERROR
The MySQL server has gone away.
CR_SERVER_LOST
The connection to the server was lost during the query.
CR_UNKNOWN_ERROR
An unknown error occurred.
ER_UNKNOWN_COM_ERROR
The MySQL server doesn't implement this command (probably an old server)
ER_ACCESS_DENIED_ERROR
The user or password was wrong.
ER_BAD_DB_ERROR
The database didn't exist.
ER_DBACCESS_DENIED_ERROR
The user did not have access rights to the database.
ER_WRONG_DB_NAME
The database name was too long.

24.1.3.18 Example

if (mysql_change_user(&mysql, "user", "password", "new_database"))
{
   fprintf(stderr, "Failed to change user.  Error: %s\n",
           mysql_error(&mysql));
}

24.1.3.19 mysql_character_set_name()

const char *mysql_character_set_name(MYSQL *mysql)

24.1.3.20 Description

Returns the default character set for the current connection.

24.1.3.21 Return Values

The default character set

24.1.3.22 Errors

None.

24.1.3.23 mysql_create_db()

int mysql_create_db(MYSQL *mysql, const char *db)

24.1.3.24 Description

Creates the database named by the db parameter.

This function is deprecated. It is preferable to use mysql_query() to issue a SQL CREATE DATABASE statement instead.

24.1.3.25 Return Values

Zero if the database was created successfully. Non-zero if an error occurred.

24.1.3.26 Errors

CR_COMMANDS_OUT_OF_SYNC
Commands were executed in an improper order.
CR_SERVER_GONE_ERROR
The MySQL server has gone away.
CR_SERVER_LOST
The connection to the server was lost during the query.
CR_UNKNOWN_ERROR
An unknown error occurred.

24.1.3.27 Example

if(mysql_create_db(&mysql, "my_database"))
{
   fprintf(stderr, "Failed to create new database.  Error: %s\n",
           mysql_error(&mysql));
}

24.1.3.28 mysql_data_seek()

void mysql_data_seek(MYSQL_RES *result, unsigned long long offset)

24.1.3.29 Description

Seeks to an arbitrary row in a query result set. This requires that the result set structure contains the entire result of the query, so mysql_data_seek() may be used in conjunction only with mysql_store_result(), not with mysql_use_result().

The offset should be a value in the range from 0 to mysql_num_rows(result)-1.

24.1.3.30 Return Values

None.

24.1.3.31 Errors

None.

24.1.3.32 mysql_debug()

void mysql_debug(char *debug)

24.1.3.33 Description

Does a DBUG_PUSH with the given string. mysql_debug() uses the Fred Fish debug library. To use this function, you must compile the client library to support debugging. See section I.1 Debugging a MySQL server. See section I.2 Debugging a MySQL client.

24.1.3.34 Return Values

None.

24.1.3.35 Errors

None.

24.1.3.36 Example

The call shown below causes the client library to generate a trace file in `/tmp/client.trace' on the client machine:

mysql_debug("d:t:O,/tmp/client.trace");

24.1.3.37 mysql_drop_db()

int mysql_drop_db(MYSQL *mysql, const char *db)

24.1.3.38 Description

Drops the database named by the db parameter.

This function is deprecated. It is preferable to use mysql_query() to issue a SQL DROP DATABASE statement instead.

24.1.3.39 Return Values

Zero if the database was dropped successfully. Non-zero if an error occurred.

24.1.3.40 Errors

CR_COMMANDS_OUT_OF_SYNC
Commands were executed in an improper order.
CR_SERVER_GONE_ERROR
The MySQL server has gone away.
CR_SERVER_LOST
The connection to the server was lost during the query.
CR_UNKNOWN_ERROR
An unknown error occurred.

24.1.3.41 Example

if(mysql_drop_db(&mysql, "my_database"))
  fprintf(stderr, "Failed to drop the database: Error: %s\n",
          mysql_error(&mysql));

24.1.3.42 mysql_dump_debug_info()

int mysql_dump_debug_info(MYSQL *mysql)

24.1.3.43 Description

Instructs the server to write some debug information to the log. The connected user must have the process privilege for this to work.

24.1.3.44 Return values

Zero if the command was successful. Non-zero if an error occurred.

24.1.3.45 Errors

CR_COMMANDS_OUT_OF_SYNC
Commands were executed in an improper order.
CR_SERVER_GONE_ERROR
The MySQL server has gone away.
CR_SERVER_LOST
The connection to the server was lost during the query.
CR_UNKNOWN_ERROR
An unknown error occurred.

24.1.3.46 mysql_eof()

my_bool mysql_eof(MYSQL_RES *result)

24.1.3.47 Description

This function is deprecated. mysql_errno() or mysql_error() may be used instead.

mysql_eof() determines whether or not the last row of a result set has been read.

If you acquire a result set from a successful call to mysql_store_result(), the client receives the entire set in one operation. In this case, a NULL return from mysql_fetch_row() always means the end of the result set has been reached and it is unnecessary to call mysql_eof().

On the other hand, if you use mysql_use_result() to initiate a result set retrieval, the rows of the set are obtained from the server one by one as you call mysql_fetch_row() repeatedly. Because an error may occur on the connection during this process, a NULL return value from mysql_fetch_row() does not necessarily mean the end of the result set was reached normally. In this case, you can use mysql_eof() to determine what happened. mysql_eof() returns a non-zero value if the end of the result set was reached and zero if an error occurred.

Historically, mysql_eof() predates the standard MySQL error functions mysql_errno() and mysql_error(). Because those error functions provide the same information, their use is preferred over mysql_eof(), which is now deprecated. (In fact, they provide more information, because mysql_eof() returns only a boolean value whereas the error functions indicate a reason for the error when one occurs.)

24.1.3.48 Return Values

Zero if no error occurred. Non-zero if the end of the result set has been reached.

24.1.3.49 Errors

None.

24.1.3.50 Example

The following example shows how you might use mysql_eof():

mysql_query(&mysql,"SELECT * FROM some_table");
result = mysql_use_result(&mysql);
while((row = mysql_fetch_row(result)))
{
    // do something with data
}
if(!mysql_eof(result))  // mysql_fetch_row() failed due to an error
{
    fprintf(stderr, "Error: %s\n", mysql_error(&mysql));
}

However, you can achieve the same effect with the standard MySQL error functions:

mysql_query(&mysql,"SELECT * FROM some_table");
result = mysql_use_result(&mysql);
while((row = mysql_fetch_row(result)))
{
    // do something with data
}
if(mysql_errno(&mysql))  // mysql_fetch_row() failed due to an error
{
    fprintf(stderr, "Error: %s\n", mysql_error(&mysql));
}

24.1.3.51 mysql_errno()

unsigned int mysql_errno(MYSQL *mysql)

24.1.3.52 Description

For the connection specified by mysql, mysql_errno() returns the error code for the most recently invoked API function that can succeed or fail. A return value of zero means that no error occurred. Client error message numbers are listed in the MySQL `errmsg.h' header file. Server error message numbers are listed in `mysqld_error.h'. In the MySQL source distribution you can find a complete list of error messages and error numbers in the file `Docs/mysqld_error.txt'.

24.1.3.53 Return Values

An error code value. Zero if no error occurred.

24.1.3.54 Errors

None.

24.1.3.55 mysql_error()

char *mysql_error(MYSQL *mysql)

24.1.3.56 Description

For the connection specified by mysql, mysql_error() returns the error message for the most recently invoked API function that can succeed or fail. An empty string ("") is returned if no error occurred. This means the following two tests are equivalent:

if(mysql_errno(&mysql))
{
    // an error occurred
}

if(mysql_error(&mysql)[0] != '\0')
{
    // an error occurred
}

The language of the client error messages may be changed by recompiling the MySQL client library. Currently you can choose error messages in several different languages. See section 10.1 What Languages Are Supported by MySQL?.

24.1.3.57 Return Values

A character string that describes the error. An empty string if no error occurred.

24.1.3.58 Errors

None.

24.1.3.59 mysql_escape_string()

You should use mysql_real_escape_string() instead!

This is identical to mysql_real_escape_string() except that it takes the connection as the first argument. mysql_real_escape_string() will escape the string according to the current character set while mysql_escape_string() does not respect the current charset setting.

24.1.3.60 mysql_fetch_field()

MYSQL_FIELD *mysql_fetch_field(MYSQL_RES *result)

24.1.3.61 Description

Returns the definition of one column of a result set as a MYSQL_FIELD structure. Call this function repeatedly to retrieve information about all columns in the result set. mysql_fetch_field() returns NULL when no more fields are left.

mysql_fetch_field() is reset to return information about the first field each time you execute a new SELECT query. The field returned by mysql_fetch_field() is also affected by calls to mysql_field_seek().

If you've called mysql_query() to perform a SELECT on a table but have not called mysql_store_result(), MySQL returns the default blob length (8K bytes) if you call mysql_fetch_field() to ask for the length of a BLOB field. (The 8K size is chosen because MySQL doesn't know the maximum length for the BLOB. This should be made configurable sometime.) Once you've retrieved the result set, field->max_length contains the length of the largest value for this column in the specific query.

24.1.3.62 Return Values

The MYSQL_FIELD structure for the current column. NULL if no columns are left.

24.1.3.63 Errors

None.

24.1.3.64 Example

MYSQL_FIELD *field;

while((field = mysql_fetch_field(result)))
{
    printf("field name %s\n", field->name);
}

24.1.3.65 mysql_fetch_fields()

MYSQL_FIELD *mysql_fetch_fields(MYSQL_RES *result)

24.1.3.66 Description

Returns an array of all MYSQL_FIELD structures for a result set. Each structure provides the field definition for one column of the result set.

24.1.3.67 Return Values

An array of MYSQL_FIELD structures for all columns of a result set.

24.1.3.68 Errors

None.

24.1.3.69 Example

unsigned int num_fields;
unsigned int i;
MYSQL_FIELD *fields;

num_fields = mysql_num_fields(result);
fields = mysql_fetch_fields(result);
for(i = 0; i < num_fields; i++)
{
   printf("Field %u is %s\n", i, fields[i].name);
}

24.1.3.70 mysql_fetch_field_direct()

MYSQL_FIELD *mysql_fetch_field_direct(MYSQL_RES *result, unsigned int fieldnr)

24.1.3.71 Description

Given a field number fieldnr for a column within a result set, returns that column's field definition as a MYSQL_FIELD structure. You may use this function to retrieve the definition for an arbitrary column. The value of fieldnr should be in the range from 0 to mysql_num_fields(result)-1.

24.1.3.72 Return Values

The MYSQL_FIELD structure for the specified column.

24.1.3.73 Errors

None.

24.1.3.74 Example

unsigned int num_fields;
unsigned int i;
MYSQL_FIELD *field;

num_fields = mysql_num_fields(result);
for(i = 0; i < num_fields; i++)
{
    field = mysql_fetch_field_direct(result, i);
    printf("Field %u is %s\n", i, field->name);
}

24.1.3.75 mysql_fetch_lengths()

unsigned long *mysql_fetch_lengths(MYSQL_RES *result)

24.1.3.76 Description

Returns the lengths of the columns of the current row within a result set. If you plan to copy field values, this length information is also useful for optimization, because you can avoid calling strlen(). In addition, if the result set contains binary data, you must use this function to determine the size of the data, because strlen() returns incorrect results for any field containing null characters.

The length for empty columns and for columns containing NULL values is zero. To see how to distinguish these two cases, see the description for mysql_fetch_row().

24.1.3.77 Return Values

An array of unsigned long integers representing the size of each column (not including any terminating null characters). NULL if an error occurred.

24.1.3.78 Errors

mysql_fetch_lengths() is valid only for the current row of the result set. It returns NULL if you call it before calling mysql_fetch_row() or after retrieving all rows in the result.

24.1.3.79 Example

MYSQL_ROW row;
unsigned long *lengths;
unsigned int num_fields;
unsigned int i;

row = mysql_fetch_row(result);
if (row)
{
    num_fields = mysql_num_fields(result);
    lengths = mysql_fetch_lengths(result);
    for(i = 0; i < num_fields; i++)
    {
         printf("Column %u is %lu bytes in length.\n", i, lengths[i]);
    }
}

24.1.3.80 mysql_fetch_row()

MYSQL_ROW mysql_fetch_row(MYSQL_RES *result)

24.1.3.81 Description

Retrieves the next row of a result set. When used after mysql_store_result(), mysql_fetch_row() returns NULL when there are no more rows to retrieve. When used after mysql_use_result(), mysql_fetch_row() returns NULL when there are no more rows to retrieve or if an error occurred.

The number of values in the row is given by mysql_num_fields(result). If row holds the return value from a call to mysql_fetch_row(), pointers to the values are accessed as row[0] to row[mysql_num_fields(result)-1]. NULL values in the row are indicated by NULL pointers.

The lengths of the field values in the row may be obtained by calling mysql_fetch_lengths(). Empty fields and fields containing NULL both have length 0; you can distinguish these by checking the pointer for the field value. If the pointer is NULL, the field is NULL; otherwise the field is empty.

24.1.3.82 Return Values

A MYSQL_ROW structure for the next row. NULL if there are no more rows to retrieve or if an error occurred.

24.1.3.83 Errors

CR_SERVER_LOST
The connection to the server was lost during the query.
CR_UNKNOWN_ERROR
An unknown error occurred.

24.1.3.84 Example

MYSQL_ROW row;
unsigned int num_fields;
unsigned int i;

num_fields = mysql_num_fields(result);
while ((row = mysql_fetch_row(result)))
{
   unsigned long *lengths;
   lengths = mysql_fetch_lengths(result);
   for(i = 0; i < num_fields; i++)
   {
       printf("[%.*s] ", (int) lengths[i], row[i] ? row[i] : "NULL");
   }
   printf("\n");
}

24.1.3.85 mysql_field_count()

unsigned int mysql_field_count(MYSQL *mysql)

If you are using a version of MySQL earlier than Version 3.22.24, you should use unsigned int mysql_num_fields(MYSQL *mysql) instead.

24.1.3.86 Description

Returns the number of columns for the most recent query on the connection.

The normal use of this function is when mysql_store_result() returned NULL (and thus you have no result set pointer). In this case, you can call mysql_field_count() to determine whether or not mysql_store_result() should have produced a non-empty result. This allows the client program to take proper action without knowing whether or not the query was a SELECT (or SELECT-like) statement. The example shown below illustrates how this may be done.

See section 24.1.4.1 Why Is It that After mysql_query() Returns Success, mysql_store_result() Sometimes Returns NULL?.

24.1.3.87 Return Values

An unsigned integer representing the number of fields in a result set.

24.1.3.88 Errors

None.

24.1.3.89 Example

MYSQL_RES *result;
unsigned int num_fields;
unsigned int num_rows;

if (mysql_query(&mysql,query_string))
{
    // error
}
else // query succeeded, process any data returned by it
{
    result = mysql_store_result(&mysql);
    if (result)  // there are rows
    {
        num_fields = mysql_num_fields(result);
        // retrieve rows, then call mysql_free_result(result)
    }
    else  // mysql_store_result() returned nothing; should it have?
    {
        if(mysql_field_count(&mysql) == 0)
        {
            // query does not return data
            // (it was not a SELECT)
            num_rows = mysql_affected_rows(&mysql);
        }
        else // mysql_store_result() should have returned data
        {
            fprintf(stderr, "Error: %s\n", mysql_error(&mysql));
        }
    }
}

An alternative is to replace the mysql_field_count(&mysql) call with mysql_errno(&mysql). In this case, you are checking directly for an error from mysql_store_result() rather than inferring from the value of mysql_field_count() whether or not the statement was a SELECT.

24.1.3.90 mysql_field_seek()

MYSQL_FIELD_OFFSET mysql_field_seek(MYSQL_RES *result, MYSQL_FIELD_OFFSET offset)

24.1.3.91 Description

Sets the field cursor to the given offset. The next call to mysql_fetch_field() will retrieve the field definition of the column associated with that offset.

To seek to the beginning of a row, pass an offset value of zero.

24.1.3.92 Return Values

The previous value of the field cursor.

24.1.3.93 Errors

None.

24.1.3.94 mysql_field_tell()

MYSQL_FIELD_OFFSET mysql_field_tell(MYSQL_RES *result)

24.1.3.95 Description

Returns the position of the field cursor used for the last mysql_fetch_field(). This value can be used as an argument to mysql_field_seek().

24.1.3.96 Return Values

The current offset of the field cursor.

24.1.3.97 Errors

None.

24.1.3.98 mysql_free_result()

void mysql_free_result(MYSQL_RES *result)

24.1.3.99 Description

Frees the memory allocated for a result set by mysql_store_result(), mysql_use_result(), mysql_list_dbs(), etc. When you are done with a result set, you must free the memory it uses by calling mysql_free_result().

24.1.3.100 Return Values

None.

24.1.3.101 Errors

None.

24.1.3.102 mysql_get_client_info()

char *mysql_get_client_info(void)

24.1.3.103 Description

Returns a string that represents the client library version.

24.1.3.104 Return Values

A character string that represents the MySQL client library version.

24.1.3.105 Errors

None.

24.1.3.106 mysql_get_host_info()

char *mysql_get_host_info(MYSQL *mysql)

24.1.3.107 Description

Returns a string describing the type of connection in use, including the server host name.

24.1.3.108 Return Values

A character string representing the server host name and the connection type.

24.1.3.109 Errors

None.

24.1.3.110 mysql_get_proto_info()

unsigned int mysql_get_proto_info(MYSQL *mysql)

24.1.3.111 Description

Returns the protocol version used by current connection.

24.1.3.112 Return Values

An unsigned integer representing the protocol version used by the current connection.

24.1.3.113 Errors

None.

24.1.3.114 mysql_get_server_info()

char *mysql_get_server_info(MYSQL *mysql)

24.1.3.115 Description

Returns a string that represents the server version number.

24.1.3.116 Return Values

A character string that represents the server version number.

24.1.3.117 Errors

None.

24.1.3.118 mysql_info()

char *mysql_info(MYSQL *mysql)

24.1.3.119 Description

Retrieves a string providing information about the most recently executed query, but only for the statements listed below. For other statements, mysql_info() returns NULL. The format of the string varies depending on the type of query, as described below. The numbers are illustrative only; the string will contain values appropriate for the query.

INSERT INTO ... SELECT ...
String format: Records: 100 Duplicates: 0 Warnings: 0
INSERT INTO ... VALUES (...),(...),(...)...
String format: Records: 3 Duplicates: 0 Warnings: 0
LOAD DATA INFILE ...
String format: Records: 1 Deleted: 0 Skipped: 0 Warnings: 0
ALTER TABLE
String format: Records: 3 Duplicates: 0 Warnings: 0
UPDATE
String format: Rows matched: 40 Changed: 40 Warnings: 0

Note that mysql_info() returns a non-NULL value for the INSERT ... VALUES statement only if multiple value lists are specified in the statement.

24.1.3.120 Return Values

A character string representing additional information about the most recently executed query. NULL if no information is available for the query.

24.1.3.121 Errors

None.

24.1.3.122 mysql_init()

MYSQL *mysql_init(MYSQL *mysql)

24.1.3.123 Description

Allocates or initializes a MYSQL object suitable for mysql_real_connect(). If mysql is a NULL pointer, the function allocates, initializes, and returns a new object. Otherwise the object is initialized and the address of the object is returned. If mysql_init() allocates a new object, it will be freed when mysql_close() is called to close the connection.

24.1.3.124 Return Values

An initialized MYSQL* handle. NULL if there was insufficient memory to allocate a new object.

24.1.3.125 Errors

In case of insufficient memory, NULL is returned.

24.1.3.126 mysql_insert_id()

my_ulonglong mysql_insert_id(MYSQL *mysql)

24.1.3.127 Description

Returns the ID generated for an AUTO_INCREMENT column by the previous query. Use this function after you have performed an INSERT query into a table that contains an AUTO_INCREMENT field.

Note that mysql_insert_id() returns 0 if the previous query does not generate an AUTO_INCREMENT value. If you need to save the value for later, be sure to call mysql_insert_id() immediately after the query that generates the value.

Also note that the value of the SQL LAST_INSERT_ID() function always contains the most recently generated AUTO_INCREMENT value, and is not reset between queries because the value of that function is maintained in the server.

24.1.3.128 Return Values

The value of the AUTO_INCREMENT field that was updated by the previous query. Returns zero if there was no previous query on the connection or if the query did not update an AUTO_INCREMENT value.

24.1.3.129 Errors

None.

24.1.3.130 mysql_kill()

int mysql_kill(MYSQL *mysql, unsigned long pid)

24.1.3.131 Description

Asks the server to kill the thread specified by pid.

24.1.3.132 Return Values

Zero for success. Non-zero if an error occurred.

24.1.3.133 Errors

CR_COMMANDS_OUT_OF_SYNC
Commands were executed in an improper order.
CR_SERVER_GONE_ERROR
The MySQL server has gone away.
CR_SERVER_LOST
The connection to the server was lost during the query.
CR_UNKNOWN_ERROR
An unknown error occurred.

24.1.3.134 mysql_list_dbs()

MYSQL_RES *mysql_list_dbs(MYSQL *mysql, const char *wild)

24.1.3.135 Description

Returns a result set consisting of database names on the server that match the simple regular expression specified by the wild parameter. wild may contain the wild-card characters `%' or `_', or may be a NULL pointer to match all databases. Calling mysql_list_dbs() is similar to executing the query SHOW databases [LIKE wild].

You must free the result set with mysql_free_result().

24.1.3.136 Return Values

A MYSQL_RES result set for success. NULL if an error occurred.

24.1.3.137 Errors

CR_COMMANDS_OUT_OF_SYNC
Commands were executed in an improper order.
CR_OUT_OF_MEMORY
Out of memory.
CR_SERVER_GONE_ERROR
The MySQL server has gone away.
CR_SERVER_LOST
The connection to the server was lost during the query.
CR_UNKNOWN_ERROR
An unknown error occurred.

24.1.3.138 mysql_list_fields()

MYSQL_RES *mysql_list_fields(MYSQL *mysql, const char *table, const char *wild)

24.1.3.139 Description

Returns a result set consisting of field names in the given table that match the simple regular expression specified by the wild parameter. wild may contain the wild-card characters `%' or `_', or may be a NULL pointer to match all fields. Calling mysql_list_fields() is similar to executing the query SHOW COLUMNS FROM tbl_name [LIKE wild].

Note that it's recommended that you use SHOW COLUMNS FROM tbl_name instead of mysql_list_fields().

You must free the result set with mysql_free_result().

24.1.3.140 Return Values

A MYSQL_RES result set for success. NULL if an error occurred.

24.1.3.141 Errors

CR_COMMANDS_OUT_OF_SYNC
Commands were executed in an improper order.
CR_SERVER_GONE_ERROR
The MySQL server has gone away.
CR_SERVER_LOST
The connection to the server was lost during the query.
CR_UNKNOWN_ERROR
An unknown error occurred.

24.1.3.142 mysql_list_processes()

MYSQL_RES *mysql_list_processes(MYSQL *mysql)

24.1.3.143 Description

Returns a result set describing the current server threads. This is the same kind of information as that reported by mysqladmin processlist or a SHOW PROCESSLIST query.

You must free the result set with mysql_free_result().

24.1.3.144 Return Values

A MYSQL_RES result set for success. NULL if an error occurred.

24.1.3.145 Errors

CR_COMMANDS_OUT_OF_SYNC
Commands were executed in an improper order.
CR_SERVER_GONE_ERROR
The MySQL server has gone away.
CR_SERVER_LOST
The connection to the server was lost during the query.
CR_UNKNOWN_ERROR
An unknown error occurred.

24.1.3.146 mysql_list_tables()

MYSQL_RES *mysql_list_tables(MYSQL *mysql, const char *wild)

24.1.3.147 Description

Returns a result set consisting of table names in the current database that match the simple regular expression specified by the wild parameter. wild may contain the wild-card characters `%' or `_', or may be a NULL pointer to match all tables. Calling mysql_list_tables() is similar to executing the query SHOW tables [LIKE wild].

You must free the result set with mysql_free_result().

24.1.3.148 Return Values

A MYSQL_RES result set for success. NULL if an error occurred.

24.1.3.149 Errors

CR_COMMANDS_OUT_OF_SYNC
Commands were executed in an improper order.
CR_SERVER_GONE_ERROR
The MySQL server has gone away.
CR_SERVER_LOST
The connection to the server was lost during the query.
CR_UNKNOWN_ERROR
An unknown error occurred.

24.1.3.150 mysql_num_fields()

unsigned int mysql_num_fields(MYSQL_RES *result)

or

unsigned int mysql_num_fields(MYSQL *mysql)

The second form doesn't work on MySQL Version 3.22.24 or newer. To pass a MYSQL* argument, you must use unsigned int mysql_field_count(MYSQL *mysql) instead.

24.1.3.151 Description

Returns the number of columns in a result set.

Note that you can get the number of columns either from a pointer to a result set or to a connection handle. You would use the connection handle if mysql_store_result() or mysql_use_result() returned NULL (and thus you have no result set pointer). In this case, you can call mysql_field_count() to determine whether or not mysql_store_result() should have produced a non-empty result. This allows the client program to take proper action without knowing whether or not the query was a SELECT (or SELECT-like) statement. The example shown below illustrates how this may be done.

See section 24.1.4.1 Why Is It that After mysql_query() Returns Success, mysql_store_result() Sometimes Returns NULL?.

24.1.3.152 Return Values

An unsigned integer representing the number of fields in a result set.

24.1.3.153 Errors

None.

24.1.3.154 Example

MYSQL_RES *result;
unsigned int num_fields;
unsigned int num_rows;

if (mysql_query(&mysql,query_string))
{
    // error
}
else // query succeeded, process any data returned by it
{
    result = mysql_store_result(&mysql);
    if (result)  // there are rows
    {
        num_fields = mysql_num_fields(result);
        // retrieve rows, then call mysql_free_result(result)
    }
    else  // mysql_store_result() returned nothing; should it have?
    {
        if (mysql_errno(&mysql))
	{
           fprintf(stderr, "Error: %s\n", mysql_error(&mysql));
	}
        else if (mysql_field_count(&mysql) == 0)
        {
            // query does not return data
            // (it was not a SELECT)
            num_rows = mysql_affected_rows(&mysql);
        }
    }
}

An alternative (if you KNOW that your query should have returned a result set) is to replace the mysql_errno(&mysql) call with a check if mysql_field_count(&mysql) is = 0. This will only happen if something went wrong.

24.1.3.155 mysql_num_rows()

my_ulonglong mysql_num_rows(MYSQL_RES *result)

24.1.3.156 Description

Returns the number of rows in the result set.

The use of mysql_num_rows() depends on whether you use mysql_store_result() or mysql_use_result() to return the result set. If you use mysql_store_result(), mysql_num_rows() may be called immediately. If you use mysql_use_result(), mysql_num_rows() will not return the correct value until all the rows in the result set have been retrieved.

24.1.3.157 Return Values

The number of rows in the result set.

24.1.3.158 Errors

None.

24.1.3.159 mysql_options()

int mysql_options(MYSQL *mysql, enum mysql_option option, const char *arg)

24.1.3.160 Description

Can be used to set extra connect options and affect behavior for a connection. This function may be called multiple times to set several options.

mysql_options() should be called after mysql_init() and before mysql_connect() or mysql_real_connect().

The option argument is the option that you want to set; the arg argument is the value for the option. If the option is an integer, then arg should point to the value of the integer.

Possible options values:

Option Argument type Function
MYSQL_OPT_CONNECT_TIMEOUT unsigned int * Connect timeout in seconds.
MYSQL_OPT_COMPRESS Not used Use the compressed client/server protocol.
MYSQL_OPT_NAMED_PIPE Not used Use named pipes to connect to a MySQL server on NT.
MYSQL_INIT_COMMAND char * Command to execute when connecting to the MySQL server. Will automatically be re-executed when reconnecting.
MYSQL_READ_DEFAULT_FILE char * Read options from the named option file instead of from `my.cnf'.
MYSQL_READ_DEFAULT_GROUP char * Read options from the named group from `my.cnf' or the file specified with MYSQL_READ_DEFAULT_FILE.

Note that the group client is always read if you use MYSQL_READ_DEFAULT_FILE or MYSQL_READ_DEFAULT_GROUP.

The specified group in the option file may contain the following options:

connect_timeout Connect timeout in seconds. On Linux this timeout is also used for waiting for the first answer from the server.
compress Use the compressed client/server protocol.
database Connect to this database if no database was specified in the connect command.
debug Debug options.
host Default host name.
init-command Command to execute when connecting to MySQL server. Will automatically be re-executed when reconnecting.
interactive-timeout Same as specifying CLIENT_INTERACTIVE to mysql_real_connect(). See section 24.1.3.171 mysql_real_connect().
password Default password.
pipe Use named pipes to connect to a MySQL server on NT.
port Default port number.
return-found-rows Tell mysql_info() to return found rows instead of updated rows when using UPDATE.
socket Default socket number.
user Default user.

Note that timeout has been replaced by connect_timeout, but timeout will still work for a while.

For more information about option files, see section 4.16.5 Option Files.

24.1.3.161 Return Values

Zero for success. Non-zero if you used an unknown option.

24.1.3.162 Example

MYSQL mysql;

mysql_init(&mysql);
mysql_options(&mysql,MYSQL_OPT_COMPRESS,0);
mysql_options(&mysql,MYSQL_READ_DEFAULT_GROUP,"odbc");
if (!mysql_real_connect(&mysql,"host","user","passwd","database",0,NULL,0))
{
    fprintf(stderr, "Failed to connect to database: Error: %s\n",
          mysql_error(&mysql));
}

The above requests the client to use the compressed client/server protocol and read the additional options from the odbc section in the my.cnf file.

24.1.3.163 mysql_ping()

int mysql_ping(MYSQL *mysql)

24.1.3.164 Description

Checks whether or not the connection to the server is working. If it has gone down, an automatic reconnection is attempted.

This function can be used by clients that remain idle for a long while, to check whether or not the server has closed the connection and reconnect if necessary.

24.1.3.165 Return Values

Zero if the server is alive. Non-zero if an error occurred.

24.1.3.166 Errors

CR_COMMANDS_OUT_OF_SYNC
Commands were executed in an improper order.
CR_SERVER_GONE_ERROR
The MySQL server has gone away.
CR_UNKNOWN_ERROR
An unknown error occurred.

24.1.3.167 mysql_query()

int mysql_query(MYSQL *mysql, const char *query)

24.1.3.168 Description

Executes the SQL query pointed to by the null-terminated string query. The query must consist of a single SQL statement. You should not add a terminating semicolon (`;') or \g to the statement.

mysql_query() cannot be used for queries that contain binary data; you should use mysql_real_query() instead. (Binary data may contain the `\0' character, which mysql_query() interprets as the end of the query string.)

If you want to know if the query should return a result set or not, you can use mysql_field_count() to check for this. See section 24.1.3.85 mysql_field_count().

24.1.3.169 Return Values

Zero if the query was successful. Non-zero if an error occurred.

24.1.3.170 Errors

CR_COMMANDS_OUT_OF_SYNC
Commands were executed in an improper order.
CR_SERVER_GONE_ERROR
The MySQL server has gone away.
CR_SERVER_LOST
The connection to the server was lost during the query.
CR_UNKNOWN_ERROR
An unknown error occurred.

24.1.3.171 mysql_real_connect()

MYSQL *mysql_real_connect(MYSQL *mysql, const char *host, const char *user, const char *passwd, const char *db, unsigned int port, const char *unix_socket, unsigned int client_flag)

24.1.3.172 Description

mysql_real_connect() attempts to establish a connection to a MySQL database engine running on host. mysql_real_connect() must complete successfully before you can execute any of the other API functions, with the exception of mysql_get_client_info().

The parameters are specified as follows:

24.1.3.173 Return Values

A MYSQL* connection handle if the connection was successful, NULL if the connection was unsuccessful. For a successful connection, the return value is the same as the value of the first parameter, unless you pass NULL for that parameter.

24.1.3.174 Errors

CR_CONN_HOST_ERROR
Failed to connect to the MySQL server.
CR_CONNECTION_ERROR
Failed to connect to the local MySQL server.
CR_IPSOCK_ERROR
Failed to create an IP socket.
CR_OUT_OF_MEMORY
Out of memory.
CR_SOCKET_CREATE_ERROR
Failed to create a Unix socket.
CR_UNKNOWN_HOST
Failed to find the IP address for the hostname.
CR_VERSION_ERROR
A protocol mismatch resulted from attempting to connect to a server with a client library that uses a different protocol version. This can happen if you use a very old client library to connect to a new server that wasn't started with the --old-protocol option.
CR_NAMEDPIPEOPEN_ERROR
Failed to create a named pipe on Windows.
CR_NAMEDPIPEWAIT_ERROR
Failed to wait for a named pipe on Windows.
CR_NAMEDPIPESETSTATE_ERROR
Failed to get a pipe handler on Windows.
CR_SERVER_LOST
If connect_timeout > 0 and it took longer then connect_timeout seconds to connect to the server or if the server died while executing the init-command.

24.1.3.175 Example

MYSQL mysql;

mysql_init(&mysql);
mysql_options(&mysql,MYSQL_READ_DEFAULT_GROUP,"your_prog_name");
if (!mysql_real_connect(&mysql,"host","user","passwd","database",0,NULL,0))
{
    fprintf(stderr, "Failed to connect to database: Error: %s\n",
          mysql_error(&mysql));
}

By using mysql_options() the MySQL library will read the [client] and your_prog_name sections in the my.cnf file which will ensure that your program will work, even if someone has set up MySQL in some non-standard way.

Note that upon connection, mysql_real_connect() sets the reconnect flag (part of the MYSQL structure) to a value of 1. This flag indicates, in the event that a query cannot be performed because of a lost connection, to try reconnecting to the server before giving up.

24.1.3.176 mysql_real_escape_string()

unsigned int mysql_real_escape_string(MYSQL *mysql, char *to, const char *from, unsigned int length)

24.1.3.177 Description

This function is used to create a legal SQL string that you can use in a SQL statement. See section 7.1.1 Strings.

The string in from is encoded to an escaped SQL string, taking into account the current character set of the connection. The result is placed in to and a terminating null byte is appended. Characters encoded are NUL (ASCII 0), `\n', `\r', `\', `'', `"', and Control-Z (see section 7.1 Literals: How to Write Strings and Numbers).

The string pointed to by from must be length bytes long. You must allocate the to buffer to be at least length*2+1 bytes long. (In the worse case, each character may need to be encoded as using two bytes, and you need room for the terminating null byte.) When mysql_escape_string() returns, the contents of to will be a null-terminated string. The return value is the length of the encoded string, not including the terminating null character.

24.1.3.178 Example

char query[1000],*end;

end = strmov(query,"INSERT INTO test_table values(");
*end++ = '\'';
end += mysql_real_escape_string(&mysql, end,"What's this",11);
*end++ = '\'';
*end++ = ',';
*end++ = '\'';
end += mysql_real_escape_string(&mysql, end,"binary data: \0\r\n",16);
*end++ = '\'';
*end++ = ')';

if (mysql_real_query(&mysql,query,(unsigned int) (end - query)))
{
   fprintf(stderr, "Failed to insert row, Error: %s\n",
           mysql_error(&mysql));
}

The strmov() function used in the example is included in the mysqlclient library and works like strcpy() but returns a pointer to the terminating null of the first parameter.

24.1.3.179 Return Values

The length of the value placed into to, not including the terminating null character.

24.1.3.180 Errors

None.

24.1.3.181 mysql_real_query()

int mysql_real_query(MYSQL *mysql, const char *query, unsigned int length)

24.1.3.182 Description

Executes the SQL query pointed to by query, which should be a string length bytes long. The query must consist of a single SQL statement. You should not add a terminating semicolon (`;') or \g to the statement.

You must use mysql_real_query() rather than mysql_query() for queries that contain binary data, because binary data may contain the `\0' character. In addition, mysql_real_query() is faster than mysql_query() because it does not call strlen() on the query string.

If you want to know if the query should return a result set or not, you can use mysql_field_count() to check for this. See section 24.1.3.85 mysql_field_count().

24.1.3.183 Return Values

Zero if the query was successful. Non-zero if an error occurred.

24.1.3.184 Errors

CR_COMMANDS_OUT_OF_SYNC
Commands were executed in an improper order.
CR_SERVER_GONE_ERROR
The MySQL server has gone away.
CR_SERVER_LOST
The connection to the server was lost during the query.
CR_UNKNOWN_ERROR
An unknown error occurred.

24.1.3.185 mysql_reload()

int mysql_reload(MYSQL *mysql)

24.1.3.186 Description

Asks the MySQL server to reload the grant tables. The connected user must have the reload privilege.

This function is deprecated. It is preferable to use mysql_query() to issue a SQL FLUSH PRIVILEGES statement instead.

24.1.3.187 Return Values

Zero for success. Non-zero if an error occurred.

24.1.3.188 Errors

CR_COMMANDS_OUT_OF_SYNC
Commands were executed in an improper order.
CR_SERVER_GONE_ERROR
The MySQL server has gone away.
CR_SERVER_LOST
The connection to the server was lost during the query.
CR_UNKNOWN_ERROR
An unknown error occurred.

24.1.3.189 mysql_row_seek()

MYSQL_ROW_OFFSET mysql_row_seek(MYSQL_RES *result, MYSQL_ROW_OFFSET offset)

24.1.3.190 Description

Sets the row cursor to an arbitrary row in a query result set. This requires that the result set structure contains the entire result of the query, so mysql_row_seek() may be used in conjunction only with mysql_store_result(), not with mysql_use_result().

The offset should be a value returned from a call to mysql_row_tell() or to mysql_row_seek(). This value is not simply a row number; if you want to seek to a row within a result set using a row number, use mysql_data_seek() instead.

24.1.3.191 Return Values

The previous value of the row cursor. This value may be passed to a subsequent call to mysql_row_seek().

24.1.3.192 Errors

None.

24.1.3.193 mysql_row_tell()

MYSQL_ROW_OFFSET mysql_row_tell(MYSQL_RES *result)

24.1.3.194 Description

Returns the current position of the row cursor for the last mysql_fetch_row(). This value can be used as an argument to mysql_row_seek().

You should use mysql_row_tell() only after mysql_store_result(), not after mysql_use_result().

24.1.3.195 Return Values

The current offset of the row cursor.

24.1.3.196 Errors

None.

24.1.3.197 mysql_select_db()

int mysql_select_db(MYSQL *mysql, const char *db)

24.1.3.198 Description

Causes the database specified by db to become the default (current) database on the connection specified by mysql. In subsequent queries, this database is the default for table references that do not include an explicit database specifier.

mysql_select_db() fails unless the connected user can be authenticated as having permission to use the database.

24.1.3.199 Return Values

Zero for success. Non-zero if an error occurred.

24.1.3.200 Errors

CR_COMMANDS_OUT_OF_SYNC
Commands were executed in an improper order.
CR_SERVER_GONE_ERROR
The MySQL server has gone away.
CR_SERVER_LOST
The connection to the server was lost during the query.
CR_UNKNOWN_ERROR
An unknown error occurred.

24.1.3.201 mysql_shutdown()

int mysql_shutdown(MYSQL *mysql)

24.1.3.202 Description

Asks the database server to shut down. The connected user must have shutdown privileges.

24.1.3.203 Return Values

Zero for success. Non-zero if an error occurred.

24.1.3.204 Errors

CR_COMMANDS_OUT_OF_SYNC
Commands were executed in an improper order.
CR_SERVER_GONE_ERROR
The MySQL server has gone away.
CR_SERVER_LOST
The connection to the server was lost during the query.
CR_UNKNOWN_ERROR
An unknown error occurred.

24.1.3.205 mysql_stat()

char *mysql_stat(MYSQL *mysql)

24.1.3.206 Description

Returns a character string containing information similar to that provided by the mysqladmin status command. This includes uptime in seconds and the number of running threads, questions, reloads, and open tables.

24.1.3.207 Return Values

A character string describing the server status. NULL if an error occurred.

24.1.3.208 Errors

CR_COMMANDS_OUT_OF_SYNC
Commands were executed in an improper order.
CR_SERVER_GONE_ERROR
The MySQL server has gone away.
CR_SERVER_LOST
The connection to the server was lost during the query.
CR_UNKNOWN_ERROR
An unknown error occurred.

24.1.3.209 mysql_store_result()

MYSQL_RES *mysql_store_result(MYSQL *mysql)

24.1.3.210 Description

You must call mysql_store_result() or mysql_use_result() for every query that successfully retrieves data (SELECT, SHOW, DESCRIBE, EXPLAIN).

You don't have to call mysql_store_result() or mysql_use_result() for other queries, but it will not do any harm or cause any notable performance if you call mysql_store_result() in all cases. You can detect if the query didn't have a result set by checking if mysql_store_result() returns 0 (more about this later one).

If you want to know if the query should return a result set or not, you can use mysql_field_count() to check for this. See section 24.1.3.85 mysql_field_count().

mysql_store_result() reads the entire result of a query to the client, allocates a MYSQL_RES structure, and places the result into this structure.

mysql_store_results() returns a null pointer if the query didn't return a result set (if the query was, for example, an INSERT statement).

mysql_store_results() also returns a null pointer if reading of the result set failed. You can check if you got an error by checking if mysql_error() doesn't return a null pointer, if mysql_errno() returns <> 0, or if mysql_field_count() returns <> 0.

An empty result set is returned if there are no rows returned. (An empty result set differs from a null pointer as a return value.)

Once you have called mysql_store_result() and got a result back that isn't a null pointer, you may call mysql_num_rows() to find out how many rows are in the result set.

You can call mysql_fetch_row() to fetch rows from the result set, or mysql_row_seek() and mysql_row_tell() to obtain or set the current row position within the result set.

You must call mysql_free_result() once you are done with the result set.

See section 24.1.4.1 Why Is It that After mysql_query() Returns Success, mysql_store_result() Sometimes Returns NULL?.

24.1.3.211 Return Values

A MYSQL_RES result structure with the results. NULL if an error occurred.

24.1.3.212 Errors

CR_COMMANDS_OUT_OF_SYNC
Commands were executed in an improper order.
CR_OUT_OF_MEMORY
Out of memory.
CR_SERVER_GONE_ERROR
The MySQL server has gone away.
CR_SERVER_LOST
The connection to the server was lost during the query.
CR_UNKNOWN_ERROR
An unknown error occurred.

24.1.3.213 mysql_thread_id()

unsigned long mysql_thread_id(MYSQL *mysql)

24.1.3.214 Description

Returns the thread ID of the current connection. This value can be used as an argument to mysql_kill() to kill the thread.

If the connection is lost and you reconnect with mysql_ping(), the thread ID will change. This means you should not get the thread ID and store it for later. You should get it when you need it.

24.1.3.215 Return Values

The thread ID of the current connection.

24.1.3.216 Errors

None.

24.1.3.217 mysql_use_result()

MYSQL_RES *mysql_use_result(MYSQL *mysql)

24.1.3.218 Description

You must call mysql_store_result() or mysql_use_result() for every query that successfully retrieves data (SELECT, SHOW, DESCRIBE, EXPLAIN).

mysql_use_result() initiates a result set retrieval but does not actually read the result set into the client like mysql_store_result() does. Instead, each row must be retrieved individually by making calls to mysql_fetch_row(). This reads the result of a query directly from the server without storing it in a temporary table or local buffer, which is somewhat faster and uses much less memory than mysql_store_result(). The client will only allocate memory for the current row and a communication buffer that may grow up to max_allowed_packet bytes.

On the other hand, you shouldn't use mysql_use_result() if you are doing a lot of processing for each row on the client side, or if the output is sent to a screen on which the user may type a ^S (stop scroll). This will tie up the server and prevent other threads from updating any tables from which the data is being fetched.

When using mysql_use_result(), you must execute mysql_fetch_row() until a NULL value is returned, otherwise the unfetched rows will be returned as part of the result set for your next query. The C API will give the error Commands out of sync; You can't run this command now if you forget to do this!

You may not use mysql_data_seek(), mysql_row_seek(), mysql_row_tell(), mysql_num_rows(), or mysql_affected_rows() with a result returned from mysql_use_result(), nor may you issue other queries until the mysql_use_result() has finished. (However, after you have fetched all the rows, mysql_num_rows() will accurately return the number of rows fetched.)

You must call mysql_free_result() once you are done with the result set.

24.1.3.219 Return Values

A MYSQL_RES result structure. NULL if an error occurred.

24.1.3.220 Errors

CR_COMMANDS_OUT_OF_SYNC
Commands were executed in an improper order.
CR_OUT_OF_MEMORY
Out of memory.
CR_SERVER_GONE_ERROR
The MySQL server has gone away.
CR_SERVER_LOST
The connection to the server was lost during the query.
CR_UNKNOWN_ERROR
An unknown error occurred.

24.1.4 Common questions and problems when using the C API

24.1.4.1 Why Is It that After mysql_query() Returns Success, mysql_store_result() Sometimes Returns NULL?

It is possible for mysql_store_result() to return NULL following a successful call to mysql_query(). When this happens, it means one of the following conditions occurred:

You can always check whether or not the statement should have produced a non-empty result by calling mysql_field_count(). If mysql_field_count() returns zero, the result is empty and the last query was a statement that does not return values (for example, an INSERT or a DELETE). If mysql_field_count() returns a non-zero value, the statement should have produced a non-empty result. See the description of the mysql_field_count() function for an example.

You can test for an error by calling mysql_error() or mysql_errno().

24.1.4.2 What Results Can I Get From a Query?

In addition to the result set returned by a query, you can also get the following information:

24.1.4.3 How Can I Get the Unique ID for the Last Inserted Row?

If you insert a record in a table containing a column that has the AUTO_INCREMENT attribute, you can get the most recently generated ID by calling the mysql_insert_id() function.

You can also retrieve the ID by using the LAST_INSERT_ID() function in a query string that you pass to mysql_query().

You can check if an AUTO_INCREMENT index is used by executing the following code. This also checks if the query was an INSERT with an AUTO_INCREMENT index:

if (mysql_error(&mysql)[0] == 0 &&
    mysql_num_fields(result) == 0 &&
    mysql_insert_id(&mysql) != 0)
{
    used_id = mysql_insert_id(&mysql);
}

The most recently generated ID is maintained in the server on a per-connection basis. It will not be changed by another client. It will not even be changed if you update another AUTO_INCREMENT column with a non-magic value (that is, a value that is not NULL and not 0).

If you want to use the ID that was generated for one table and insert it into a second table, you can use SQL statements like this:

INSERT INTO foo (auto,text)
    VALUES(NULL,'text');              # generate ID by inserting NULL
INSERT INTO foo2 (id,text)
    VALUES(LAST_INSERT_ID(),'text');  # use ID in second table

24.1.4.4 Problems Linking with the C API

When linking with the C API, the following errors may occur on some systems:

gcc -g -o client test.o -L/usr/local/lib/mysql -lmysqlclient -lsocket -lnsl

Undefined        first referenced
 symbol          in file
floor            /usr/local/lib/mysql/libmysqlclient.a(password.o)
ld: fatal: Symbol referencing errors. No output written to client

If this happens on your system, you must include the math library by adding -lm to the end of the compile/link line.

24.1.5 How to Make a Thread-safe Client

The client library is almost thread safe. The biggest problem is that the subroutines in `net.c' that read from sockets are not interrupt safe. This was done with the thought that you might want to have your own alarm that can break a long read to a server. If you install interrupt handlers for the SIGPIPE interrupt, the socket handling should be thread safe.

In the older binaries we distribute on our Web site, the client libraries are not normally compiled with the thread-safe option (the Windows binaries are by default compiled to be thread safe). Newer binary distributions should have both a normal and a thread-safe client library.

To get a really thread-safe client where you can interrupt the client from other threads and set timeouts when talking with the MySQL server, you should use the -lmysys, -lstring, and -ldbug libraries and the net_serv.o code that the server uses.

If you don't need interrupts or timeouts, you can just compile a thread safe client library (mysqlclient_r) and use this. See section 24.1 MySQL C API. In this case you don't have to worry about the net_serv.o object file or the other MySQL libraries.

When using a threaded client and you want to use timeouts and interrupts, you can make great use of the routines in the `thr_alarm.c' file. If you are using routines from the mysys library, the only thing you must remember is to call my_init() first!

All functions except mysql_real_connect() are by default thread safe. The following notes describe how to compile a thread safe client library and use it in a thread-safe manner. (The notes below for mysql_real_connect() actually apply to mysql_connect() as well, but because mysql_connect() is deprecated, you should be using mysql_real_connect() anyway.)

To make mysql_real_connect() thread safe, you must recompile the client library with this command:

shell> ./configure --with-thread-safe-client

This will create a thread-safe client library libmysqlclient_r. --with-thread-safe-client. This library is thread safe per connection. You can let two threads share the same connection as long as you do the following:

You may get some errors because of undefined symbols when linking your client with mysqlclient_r. In most cases this is because you haven't included the thread libraries on the link/compile line.

24.2 MySQL Perl API

This section documents the Perl DBI interface. The former interface was called mysqlperl. DBI/DBD now is the recommended Perl interface, so mysqlperl is obsolete and is not documented here.

24.2.1 DBI with DBD::mysql

DBI is a generic interface for many databases. That means that you can write a script that works with many different database engines without change. You need a DataBase Driver (DBD) defined for each database type. For MySQL, this driver is called DBD::mysql.

For more information on the Perl5 DBI, please visit the DBI Web page and read the documentation:

http://www.symbolstone.org/technology/perl/DBI/index.html

For more information on Object Oriented Programming (OOP) as defined in Perl5, see the Perl OOP page:

http://language.perl.com/info/documentation.html

Note that if you want to use transactions with Perl, you need to have Msql-Mysql-modules version 1.2216 or newer.

Installation instructions for MySQL Perl support are given in section 4.11 Perl Installation Comments.

24.2.2 The DBI Interface

Portable DBI Methods

connect Establishes a connection to a database server.
disconnect Disconnects from the database server.
prepare Prepares a SQL statement for execution.
execute Executes prepared statements.
do Prepares and executes a SQL statement.
quote Quotes string or BLOB values to be inserted.
fetchrow_array Fetches the next row as an array of fields.
fetchrow_arrayref Fetches next row as a reference array of fields.
fetchrow_hashref Fetches next row as a reference to a hashtable.
fetchall_arrayref Fetches all data as an array of arrays.
finish Finishes a statement and lets the system free resources.
rows Returns the number of rows affected.
data_sources Returns an array of databases available on localhost.
ChopBlanks Controls whether fetchrow_* methods trim spaces.
NUM_OF_PARAMS The number of placeholders in the prepared statement.
NULLABLE Which columns can be NULL.
trace Perform tracing for debugging.

MySQL-specific Methods

insertid The latest AUTO_INCREMENT value.
is_blob Which columns are BLOB values.
is_key Which columns are keys.
is_num Which columns are numeric.
is_pri_key Which columns are primary keys.
is_not_null Which columns CANNOT be NULL. See NULLABLE.
length Maximum possible column sizes.
max_length Maximum column sizes actually present in result.
NAME Column names.
NUM_OF_FIELDS Number of fields returned.
table Table names in returned set.
type All column types.

The Perl methods are described in more detail in the following sections. Variables used for method return values have these meanings:

$dbh
Database handle
$sth
Statement handle
$rc
Return code (often a status)
$rv
Return value (often a row count)

Portable DBI Methods

connect($data_source, $username, $password)
Use the connect method to make a database connection to the data source. The $data_source value should begin with DBI:driver_name:. Example uses of connect with the DBD::mysql driver:
$dbh = DBI->connect("DBI:mysql:$database", $user, $password);
$dbh = DBI->connect("DBI:mysql:$database:$hostname",
                    $user, $password);
$dbh = DBI->connect("DBI:mysql:$database:$hostname:$port",
                    $user, $password);
If the user name and/or password are undefined, DBI uses the values of the DBI_USER and DBI_PASS environment variables, respectively. If you don't specify a hostname, it defaults to 'localhost'. If you don't specify a port number, it defaults to the default MySQL port (3306). As of Msql-Mysql-modules Version 1.2009, the $data_source value allows certain modifiers:
mysql_read_default_file=file_name
Read `filename' as an option file. For information on option files, see section 4.16.5 Option Files.
mysql_read_default_group=group_name
The default group when reading an option file is normally the [client] group. By specifying the mysql_read_default_group option, the default group becomes the [group_name] group.
mysql_compression=1
Use compressed communication between the client and server (MySQL Version 3.22.3 or later).
mysql_socket=/path/to/socket
Specify the pathname of the Unix socket that is used to connect to the server (MySQL Version 3.21.15 or later).
Multiple modifiers may be given; each must be preceded by a semicolon. For example, if you want to avoid hardcoding the user name and password into a DBI script, you can take them from the user's `~/.my.cnf' option file instead by writing your connect call like this:
$dbh = DBI->connect("DBI:mysql:$database"
                . ";mysql_read_default_file=$ENV{HOME}/.my.cnf",
                $user, $password);
This call will read options defined for the [client] group in the option file. If you wanted to do the same thing but use options specified for the [perl] group as well, you could use this:
$dbh = DBI->connect("DBI:mysql:$database"
                . ";mysql_read_default_file=$ENV{HOME}/.my.cnf"
                . ";mysql_read_default_group=perl",
                $user, $password);
disconnect
The disconnect method disconnects the database handle from the database. This is typically called right before you exit from the program. Example:
$rc = $dbh->disconnect;
prepare($statement)
Prepares a SQL statement for execution by the database engine and returns a statement handle ($sth), which you can use to invoke the execute method. Typically you handle SELECT statements (and SELECT-like statements such as SHOW, DESCRIBE, and EXPLAIN) by means of prepare and execute. Example:
$sth = $dbh->prepare($statement)
    or die "Can't prepare $statement: $dbh->errstr\n";
execute
The execute method executes a prepared statement. For non-SELECT statements, execute returns the number of rows affected. If no rows are affected, execute returns "0E0", which Perl treats as zero but regards as true. If an error occurs, execute returns undef. For SELECT statements, execute only starts the SQL query in the database; you need to use one of the fetch_* methods described below to retrieve the data. Example:
$rv = $sth->execute
          or die "can't execute the query: $sth->errstr;
do($statement)
The do method prepares and executes a SQL statement and returns the number of rows affected. If no rows are affected, do returns "0E0", which Perl treats as zero but regards as true. This method is generally used for non-SELECT statements that cannot be prepared in advance (due to driver limitations) or that do not need to be executed more than once (inserts, deletes, etc.). Example:
$rv = $dbh->do($statement)
        or die "Can't execute $statement: $dbh- >errstr\n";
Generally the 'do' statement is MUCH faster (and is preferable) than prepare/execute for statements that don't contain parameters.
quote($string)
The quote method is used to "escape" any special characters contained in the string and to add the required outer quotation marks. Example:
$sql = $dbh->quote($string)
fetchrow_array
This method fetches the next row of data and returns it as an array of field values. Example:
while(@row = $sth->fetchrow_array) {
        print qw($row[0]\t$row[1]\t$row[2]\n);
}
fetchrow_arrayref
This method fetches the next row of data and returns it as a reference to an array of field values. Example:
while($row_ref = $sth->fetchrow_arrayref) {
        print qw($row_ref->[0]\t$row_ref->[1]\t$row_ref->[2]\n);
}
fetchrow_hashref
This method fetches a row of data and returns a reference to a hash table containing field name/value pairs. This method is not nearly as efficient as using array references as demonstrated above. Example:
while($hash_ref = $sth->fetchrow_hashref) {
        print qw($hash_ref->{firstname}\t$hash_ref->{lastname}\t\
                $hash_ref- > title}\n);
}
fetchall_arrayref
This method is used to get all the data (rows) to be returned from the SQL statement. It returns a reference to an array of references to arrays for each row. You access or print the data by using a nested loop. Example:
my $table = $sth->fetchall_arrayref
                or die "$sth->errstr\n";
my($i, $j);
for $i ( 0 .. $#{$table} ) {
        for $j ( 0 .. $#{$table->[$i]} ) {
                print "$table->[$i][$j]\t";
        }
        print "\n";
}
finish
Indicates that no more data will be fetched from this statement handle. You call this method to free up the statement handle and any system resources associated with it. Example:
$rc = $sth->finish;
rows
Returns the number of rows changed (updated, deleted, etc.) by the last command. This is usually used after a non-SELECT execute statement. Example:
$rv = $sth->rows;
NULLABLE
Returns a reference to an array of boolean values; for each element of the array, a value of TRUE indicates that this column may contain NULL values. Example:
$null_possible = $sth->{NULLABLE};
NUM_OF_FIELDS
This attribute indicates the number of fields returned by a SELECT or SHOW FIELDS statement. You may use this for checking whether a statement returned a result: A zero value indicates a non-SELECT statement like INSERT, DELETE, or UPDATE. Example:
$nr_of_fields = $sth->{NUM_OF_FIELDS};
data_sources($driver_name)
This method returns an array containing names of databases available to the MySQL server on the host 'localhost'. Example:
@dbs = DBI->data_sources("mysql");
ChopBlanks
This attribute determines whether the fetchrow_* methods will chop leading and trailing blanks from the returned values. Example:
$sth->{'ChopBlanks'} =1;
trace($trace_level)
trace($trace_level, $trace_filename)
The trace method enables or disables tracing. When invoked as a DBI class method, it affects tracing for all handles. When invoked as a database or statement handle method, it affects tracing for the given handle (and any future children of the handle). Setting $trace_level to 2 provides detailed trace information. Setting $trace_level to 0 disables tracing. Trace output goes to the standard error output by default. If $trace_filename is specified, the file is opened in append mode and output for all traced handles is written to that file. Example:
DBI->trace(2);                # trace everything
DBI->trace(2,"/tmp/dbi.out"); # trace everything to
                              # /tmp/dbi.out
$dth->trace(2);               # trace this database handle
$sth->trace(2);               # trace this statement handle
You can also enable DBI tracing by setting the DBI_TRACE environment variable. Setting it to a numeric value is equivalent to calling DBI->(value). Setting it to a pathname is equivalent to calling DBI->(2,value).

MySQL-specific Methods

The methods shown below are MySQL-specific and not part of the DBI standard. Several of them are now deprecated: is_blob, is_key, is_num, is_pri_key, is_not_null, length, max_length, and table. Where DBI-standard alternatives exist, they are noted below:

insertid
If you use the AUTO_INCREMENT feature of MySQL, the new auto-incremented values will be stored here. Example:
$new_id = $sth->{insertid};
As an alternative, you can use $dbh->{'mysql_insertid'}.
is_blob
Returns a reference to an array of boolean values; for each element of the array, a value of TRUE indicates that the respective column is a BLOB. Example:
$keys = $sth->{is_blob};
is_key
Returns a reference to an array of boolean values; for each element of the array, a value of TRUE indicates that the respective column is a key. Example:
$keys = $sth->{is_key};
is_num
Returns a reference to an array of boolean values; for each element of the array, a value of TRUE indicates that the respective column contains numeric values. Example:
$nums = $sth->{is_num};
is_pri_key
Returns a reference to an array of boolean values; for each element of the array, a value of TRUE indicates that the respective column is a primary key. Example:
$pri_keys = $sth->{is_pri_key};
is_not_null
Returns a reference to an array of boolean values; for each element of the array, a value of FALSE indicates that this column may contain NULL values. Example:
$not_nulls = $sth->{is_not_null};
is_not_null is deprecated; it is preferable to use the NULLABLE attribute (described above), because that is a DBI standard.
length
max_length
Each of these methods returns a reference to an array of column sizes. The length array indicates the maximum possible sizes that each column may be (as declared in the table description). The max_length array indicates the maximum sizes actually present in the result table. Example:
$lengths = $sth->{length};
$max_lengths = $sth->{max_length};
NAME
Returns a reference to an array of column names. Example:
$names = $sth->{NAME};
table
Returns a reference to an array of table names. Example:
$tables = $sth->{table};
type
Returns a reference to an array of column types. Example:
$types = $sth->{type};

24.2.3 More DBI/DBD Information

You can use the perldoc command to get more information about DBI.

perldoc DBI
perldoc DBI::FAQ
perldoc DBD::mysql

You can also use the pod2man, pod2html, etc., tools to translate to other formats.

You can find the latest DBI information at the DBI Web page:

http://www.symbolstone.org/technology/perl/DBI/index.html

24.3 MySQL Eiffel wrapper

The MySQL Contrib directory contains an Eiffel wrapper written by Michael Ravits.

You can also find this at: http://www.netpedia.net/hosting/newplayer/

24.4 MySQL Java Connectivity (JDBC)

There are 2 supported JDBC drivers for MySQL (the mm driver and the Reisin JDBC driver). You can find a copy of the mm driver at http://mmmysql.sourceforge.net/ or http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Contrib/ and the Reisin driver at http://www.caucho.com/projects/jdbc-mysql/index.xtp For documentation consult any JDBC documentation and the driver's own documentation for MySQL-specific features.

24.5 MySQL PHP API

PHP is a server-side, HTML-embedded scripting language that may be used to create dynamic Web pages. It contains support for accessing several databases, including MySQL. PHP may be run as a separate program or compiled as a module for use with the Apache Web server.

The distribution and documentation are available at the PHP web site.

24.5.1 Common Problems with MySQL and PHP

24.6 MySQL C++ APIs

Two APIs are available in the MySQL Contrib directory.

24.7 MySQL Python APIs

The MySQL Contrib directory contains a Python interface written by Joseph Skinner.

You can also use the Python interface to iODBC to access a MySQL server. mxODBC

24.8 MySQL Tcl APIs

Tcl at binevolve. The Contrib directory contains a Tcl interface that is based on msqltcl 1.50.


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