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UNIX in a Nutshell: System V Edition

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UNIX Commands
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ls

ls [options] [names]

If no names are given, list the files in the current directory. With one or more names, list files contained in a directory name or that match a file name. names can include filename metacharacters. The options let you display a variety of information in different formats. The most useful options include -F, -R, -l, and -s. Some options don't make sense together; e.g., -u and -c.

Options

-a

List all files, including the normally hidden . files.

-b

Show nonprinting characters in octal.

-c

List files by creation/modification time.

-C

List files in columns (the default format).

-d

List only the directory name, not its contents.

-f

Interpret each name as a directory (files are ignored).

-F

Flag filenames by appending / to directories, * to executable files, and @ to symbolic links. @ to symbolic links, and = to sockets.

-g

Like -l, but omit owner name (show group). Add group name to -l listing.

-i

List the inode for each file.

-l

Long format listing (includes permissions, owner, size, modification time, etc.).

-L

List the file or directory referenced by a symbolic link rather than the link itself.

-m

Merge the list into a comma-separated series of names.

-n

Like -l, but use GID and UID numbers instead of owner and group names.

-o

Like -l, but omit group name (show owner).

-p

Mark directories by appending / to them.

-q

Show nonprinting characters as ?.

-r

List files in reverse order (by name or by time).

-R

Recursively list subdirectories as well as current directory.

-s

Print size of the files in blocks. in kilobytes.

-t

List files according to modification time (newest first).

-u

List files according to the file access time.

-x

List files in rows going across the screen.

-1

Print one entry per line of output.

Examples

List all files in the current directory and their sizes; use multiple columns and mark special files:

ls -asCF

List the status of directories /bin and /etc:

ls -ld /bin /etc

List C source files in the current directory, the oldest first:

ls -rt *.c

Count the files in the current directory:

ls | wc -l


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