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Learning the Korn Shell

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Previous: B.1 Invocation OptionsAppendix B
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B.2 Built-in Commands and Keywords

Here is a summary of all built-in commands and keywords.
CommandChapterSummary
:7Do nothing (just do expansions of arguments).
.4Read file and execute its contents in current shell.
alias3Set up shorthand for command or command line.
bg8Put job in background.
break5

Exit from surrounding for, select, while, or until loop.

case5Multi-way conditional construct.
cd1Change working directory.
continue

Skip to next iteration of for, select, while, or until loop.

echo4Expand and print arguments (obsolete).
exec9Replace shell with given program.
exit5Exit from shell.
export3Create environment variables.
eval7Process arguments as a command line.
fc2Fix command (edit history file).
fg8Put background job in foreground.
for5Looping construct.
function4Define function.
getopts6Process command-line options.
if5Conditional construct.
jobs1List background jobs.
kill8Send signal to process.
let6Arithmetic variable assignment.
newgrpStart new shell with new group ID.
print1Expand and print arguments on standard output.
pwd1Print working directory.
read7Read a line from standard input.
readonly6Make variables read-only (unassignable).
return5Return from surrounding function or script.
select5Menu generation construct.
set3Set options.
shift6Shift command-line arguments.
timeRun command and print execution times.
trap8Set up signal-catching routine.
typeset6Set special characteristics of variables.
ulimit10Set/show process resource limits.
umask10Set/show file permission mask.
unalias3Remove alias definitions.
unset3Remove definitions of variables or functions.
until5Looping construct.
wait8Wait for background job(s) to finish.
whence3Identify source of command.
while5Looping construct.


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