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Previous: 12.12. Reporting Errors and Warnings Like Built-InsChapter 12
Packages, Libraries, and Modules
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12.13. Referring to Packages Indirectly


You want to refer to a variable or function in a package unknown until runtime, but syntax like $packname::$varname is illegal.


Use symbolic references:

    no strict 'refs';
    $val  = ${ $packname . "::" . $varname };
    @vals = @{ $packname . "::" . $aryname };
    &{ $packname . "::" . $funcname }("args");
    ($packname . "::" . $funcname) -> ("args");


A package declaration has meaning at compile time. If you don't know the name of the package or variable until run time, you'll have to resort to symbolic references for direct access to the package symbol table. Assuming you normally run with use strict in effect, you must disable part of it to use symbolic references. Once you've used the no strict 'refs' directive in that block, build up a string with the fully qualified name of the variable or function you're interested in. Then dereference this name as though it were a proper Perl reference.

Prior to version 5 of Perl, programmers were forced to use an eval for this kind of thing:

eval "package $packname; \$'$val = \$$varname"; # set $main'val
die if $@;

As you see, this approach makes quoting difficult. It's also comparatively slow. Fortunately, you never need to do this just to access variables indirectly by name. Symbolic references are a necessary compromise.

Similarly, eval could be used to define functions on the fly. Suppose you wanted to be able to get the base 2 or base 10 logs of numbers:

printf "log2  of 100 is %.2f\n", log2(100);
printf "log10 of 100 is %.2f\n", log10(100);

Perl has only the natural log function. Here's how one could use eval to create these functions at run time. Here we'll create functions named log2 up through log999:

$packname = 'main';
for ($i = 2; $i < 1000; $i++) {
    $logN = log($i);
    eval "sub ${packname}::log$i { log(shift) / $logN }";
    die if $@;

Here, at least, you don't need to do that. The following code does the same thing, but instead of compiling a new function 998 times, we compile it only once, as a closure. Then we use symbolic dereferencing of the symbol table to assign the same subroutine reference to many function names:

$packname = 'main';
for ($i = 2; $i < 1000; $i++) {
    my $logN = log($i);
    no strict 'refs';
    *{"${packname}::log$i"} = sub { log(shift) / $logN };

When you assign a reference to a typeglob, you create an alias just for the type of that name. That's how the Exporter does its job. The first line in the next code sample manually imports the function name Colors::blue into the current package. The second makes the main::blue function an alias for the Colors::azure function.

*blue       = \&Colors::blue;
*main::blue = \&Colors::azure;

Given the flexibility of typeglob assignments and symbolic references, a full-blown eval "STRING" is nearly always unnecessary, the last resort of the desperate programmer. The only thing worse would be if it weren't available at all.

See Also

The section on "Symbolic References" in Chapter 4 of Programming Perl and in the start of perlsub (1); Recipe 11.4

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