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Java Language Reference

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1.5 Notational Conventions

One of the topics of this manual is the syntax of Java: the way that identifiers such as foobar, operators such as +, and punctuation such as ; can be put together to form a valid Java program. This book also talks about lexical structure : the sequences of characters that can be put together to form valid numbers, identifiers, operators, and the like.

To describe syntax and lexical structure, many language reference manuals use a notation called BNF. BNF notation is very helpful to language implementors because it defines language constructs in a way that can easily be turned into a working language parser. Unfortunately, however, BNF can be difficult for human beings to understand. This reference manual uses a different notation, called a railroad diagram, to describe syntax and lexical structure. Railroad diagrams are much easier for people to understand. A railroad diagram provides a visual means of specifying the sequence of words, symbols, and punctuation that can be used to write a syntactic construct or a lexical structure.

Here is a simple example:

[Graphic: Figure from the text]

The idea is to follow the lines from left to right. The sequence of words or symbols that you pass along the way is the sequence of words or symbols that the railroad diagram specifies. The primary rule when navigating railroad diagrams is that you can follow lines from left to right only, unless there is an arrow pointing to the left. In the above example, there are no arrows, so there is only one way to navigate through the diagram. Therefore, the above railroad diagram specifies exactly one sequence of words: ROW YOUR BOAT.

The next example provides you with a choice of sequences:

[Graphic: Figure from the text]

You can navigate the above diagram with one of three sequences:

The following example contains an arrow:

[Graphic: Figure from the text]

In the above diagram, there is a left-pointing arrow on the line under the word ROW. That arrow means that the line can only be traversed from right to left. The line with the arrow provides a loop that allows the word ROW to be repeated one or more times, separated by commas. This allows a sequence like: ROW,ROW,ROW YOUR BOAT.

The railroad diagrams shown so far lack a feature that is typically needed to make them useful: a name. A name allows one railroad diagram to refer to another diagram. The following railroad diagram defines a construct named color :

[Graphic: Figure from the text]

To further illustrate this point, let's look at two more railroad diagrams. The first diagram defines a construct named size :

[Graphic: Figure from the text]

The second railroad diagram is similar to previous ones except that now it allows an optional color or size to precede BOAT, CANOE, or KAYAK. The diagram does this by referring to the names of the railroad diagrams that define these things:

[Graphic: Figure from the text]

In the diagrams in this book, the font for words such as ROW that are directly contained in railroad diagrams is different from the font used for words like color that are names of railroad diagrams. The preceding railroad diagram allows size and color to occur more than once. The next diagram limits size and color to at most one occurrence:

[Graphic: Figure from the text]

The lines that refer to the size and color diagrams both have semi-circles with the number one under them. The semi-circles represent bridges that collapse if crossed more than a certain number of times. The number under the semi-circle is the number of times a bridge can be crossed. Adding bridges that can be crossed only once creates a railroad diagram that permits no more than one occurrence of color and size.

The other new feature introduced in the above railroad diagram is a circle enclosing a number. These circles are connectors used when a diagram does not fit across a page. The numbered connector at the right end of one part of a railroad diagram attaches to a connector with a matching number at the left end of another part of the railroad diagram.

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