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Java in a Nutshell

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11.3 Character Encodings

Text representation has traditionally been one of the most difficult problems of internationalization. Java 1.1, however, solves this problem quite elegantly and hides the difficult issues. Java uses Unicode internally, so it can represent essentially any character in any commonly used written language. As noted above, the remaining task is to convert Unicode to and from locale-specific encodings. Java 1.1 includes quite a few internal "byte-to-char" converters and "char-to-byte" converters that handle converting locale-specific character encodings to Unicode and vice versa. While the converters themselves are not public, they are accessed through the InputStreamReader and OutputStreamWriter classes, which are two of the new character streams included in the java.io package.

Any program can automatically handle locale-specific encodings simply by using these new character stream classes to do their textual input and output. (And in addition to automatic encoding conversion, the program also benefits from the greatly improved efficiency of these new classes over the byte streams of Java 1.0.)

Example 11.1 shows a simple program that works with character encodings. It converts a file from one specified encoding to another by converting from the first encoding to Unicode and then from Unicode to the second encoding. Note that most of the program is taken up with the mechanics of parsing argument lists, handling exceptions, and so on. Only a few lines are required to create the InputStreamReader and OutputStreamWriter classes that perform the two halves of the conversion. Also note that exceptions are handled by calling LocalizedError.display(). This method is not part of the Java 1.1 API; it is a custom method shown in Example 11.6 at the end of this chapter.

Example 11.1: Working with Character Encodings

import java.io.*;
/** A program to convert from one character encoding to another. */
public class ConvertEncoding {
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    String from = null, to = null;
    String infile = null, outfile = null;
    for(int i = 0; i < args.length; i++) {  // Parse command-line arguments.
      if (i == args.length-1) usage();      // All legal args require another.
      if (args[i].equals("-from")) from = args[++i];
      else if (args[i].equals("-to")) to = args[++i];
      else if (args[i].equals("-in")) infile = args[++i];
      else if (args[i].equals("-out")) outfile = args[++i];
      else usage();
    try { convert(infile, outfile, from, to); }  // Attempt conversion.
    catch (Exception e) {                        // Handle possible exceptions.
      LocalizedError.display(e);  // Defined at the end of this chapter.
  public static void usage() {
    System.err.println("Usage: java ConvertEncoding <options>\n" +
                       "Options:\n\t-from <encoding>\n\t-to <encoding>\n\t" +
                       "-in <file>\n\t-out <file>");
  public static void convert(String infile, String outfile,
                             String from, String to)
       throws IOException, UnsupportedEncodingException
    // Set up byte streams.
    InputStream in;
    if (infile != null) in = new FileInputStream(infile);
    else in = System.in;
    OutputStream out;
    if (outfile != null) out = new FileOutputStream(outfile);
    else out = System.out;
    // Use default encoding if no encoding is specified.
    if (from == null) from = System.getProperty("file.encoding");
    if (to == null) to = System.getProperty("file.encoding");
    // Set up character streams.
    Reader r = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(in, from));
    Writer w = new BufferedWriter(new OutputStreamWriter(out, to));
    // Copy characters from input to output.  The InputStreamReader converts
    // from the input encoding to Unicode, and the OutputStreamWriter converts
    // from Unicode to the output encoding.  Characters that cannot be
    // represented in the output encoding are output as '?'
    char[] buffer = new char[4096];
    int len;
    while((len = r.read(buffer)) != -1)  // Read a block of input.
      w.write(buffer, 0, len);           // And write it out.
    r.close();                           // Close the input.
    w.flush();                           // Flush and close output.

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