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Java Fundamental Classes Reference

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Calendar

Name

Calendar

Synopsis

Class Name:

java.util.Calendar

Superclass:

java.lang.Object

Immediate Subclasses:

java.util.GregorianCalendar

Interfaces Implemented:

java.lang.Cloneable, java.io.Serializable

Availability:

New as of JDK 1.1

Description

The Calendar class is an abstractclass that is used to convert between Date objects, which represent points in time, and calendar fields, like months or days of the week. The JDK 1.0 Date class included calendar and text-formatting methods. As of JDK 1.1, both of these functions have been split off from Date in order to support internationalization. As of JDK 1.1, Date represents only a point in time, measured in milliseconds. A subclass of Calendar examines the Date in the context of a particular calendar system; a Calendar instance is a locale-sensitive object. Also as of JDK 1.1, the java.text.DateFormat class generates and parses strings representing points in time.

Calendar defines a number of symbolic constants. They represent either fields or values. For example, MONTH is a field constant. It can be passed to get() and set() to retrieve and adjust the month. AUGUST, on the other hand, represents a particular month value. Calling get(Calendar.MONTH) could return Calendar.AUGUST.

Internally, Calendar keeps track of a point in time in two ways. First, a "raw" value is maintained, which is simply a count of milliseconds since midnight, January 1, 1970 GMT, or, in other words, a Date object. Second, the calendar keeps track of a number of fields, which are the values that are specific to the Calendar type. These are values such as day of the week, day of the month, and month. The raw millisecond value can be calculated from the field values, or vice versa.

When a Date object is computed from the time fields, there may be insufficient information to compute the raw millisecond value. For example, the year and the month could be set, but not the day of the month. In this case, Calendar uses default information to fill in the missing fields. For GregorianCalendar, the default field values are taken from the date of the epoch, or midnight, January 1, 1970 GMT.

Another problem that can arise when computing a Date object from the time fields is that of inconsistent information in the fields. For example, the time fields could specify "Sunday, March 8, 1997" when in fact March 8, 1997 is a Saturday. If the time fields contain inconsistent information, Calendar gives preference to the combinations of fields in the following order:

  1. month and day of the week

  2. month, week of the month, and day of the week

  3. month, day of the week in the month, and day of the week

  4. day of the year

  5. day of the week and week of the year

  6. hour of the day

  7. A.M./P.M. and hour of A.M./P.M.

There is also the possibility of ambiguity for certain points in time, so the following rules apply. The time 24:00:00 belongs to the next day and midnight is an A.M. time, while noon is a P.M. time.

Class Summary

public abstract class java.util.Calendar extends java.lang.Object
                      implements java.lang.Cloneable, java.io.Serializable {
  // Constants
  public final static int AM;
  public final static int AM_PM;
  public final static int APRIL;
  public final static int AUGUST;
  public final static int DATE;
  public final static int DAY_OF_MONTH;
  public final static int DAY_OF_WEEK;
  public final static int DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH;
  public final static int DAY_OF_YEAR;
  public final static int DECEMBER;
  public final static int DST_OFFSET;
  public final static int ERA;
  public final static int FEBRUARY;
  public final static int FIELD_COUNT;
  public final static int FRIDAY;
  public final static int HOUR;
  public final static int HOUR_OF_DAY;
  public final static int JANUARY;
  public final static int JULY;
  public final static int JUNE;
  public final static int MARCH;
  public final static int MAY;
  public final static int MILLISECOND;
  public final static int MINUTE;
  public final static int MONDAY;
  public final static int MONTH;
  public final static int NOVEMBER;
  public final static int OCTOBER;
  public final static int PM;
  public final static int SATURDAY;
  public final static int SECOND;
  public final static int SEPTEMBER;
  public final static int SUNDAY;
  public final static int THURSDAY;
  public final static int TUESDAY;
  public final static int UNDECIMBER;
  public final static int WEDNESDAY;
  public final static int WEEK_OF_MONTH;
  public final static int WEEK_OF_YEAR;
  public final static int YEAR;
  public final static int ZONE_OFFSET;
  // Variables
  protected boolean areFieldsSet;
  protected int[] fields;
  protected boolean[] isSet;
  protected boolean isTimeSet;
  protected long time;
  // Constructors
  protected Calendar();
  protected Calendar(TimeZone zone, Locale aLocale);
  // Class Methods
  public static synchronized Locale[] getAvailableLocales();
  public static synchronized Calendar getInstance();
  public static synchronized Calendar getInstance(TimeZone zone);
  public static synchronized Calendar getInstance(Locale aLocale);
  public static synchronized Calendar getInstance(TimeZone zone, 
                                      Locale aLocale);
  // Instance Methods
  public abstract void add(int field, int amount);
  public abstract boolean after(Object when);
  public abstract boolean before(Object when);
  public final void clear();
  public final void clear(int field);
  public Object clone();
  public abstract boolean equals(Object when); 
  public final int get(int field);
  public int getFirstDayOfWeek();
  public abstract int getGreatestMinimum(int field);
  public abstract int getLeastMaximum(int field);
  public abstract int getMaximum(int field);
  public int getMinimalDaysInFirstWeek();
  public abstract int getMinimum(int field);
  public final Date getTime();
  public TimeZone getTimeZone();
  public boolean isLenient();
  public final boolean isSet(int field);
  public abstract void roll(int field, boolean up);
  public final void set(int field, int value);
  public final void set(int year, int month, int date);
  public final void set(int year, int month, int date, 
                       int hour, int minute);
  public final void set(int year, int month, int date, int hour, 
                       int minute, int second);
  public void setFirstDayOfWeek(int value);
  public void setLenient(boolean lenient);
  public void setMinimalDaysInFirstWeek(int value);
  public final void setTime(Date date);
  public void setTimeZone(TimeZone value);
  // Protected Instance Methods
  protected void complete();
  protected abstract void computeFields();
  protected abstract void computeTime();
  protected long getTimeInMillis();
  protected final int internalGet(int field);
  protected void setTimeInMillis(long millis);
}

Constants

AM

public final static int AM

Description

A constant value that represents morning times.

AM_PM

public final static int AM_PM

Description

A field constant that represents the A.M./P.M. flag of this object.

APRIL

public final static int APRIL

Description

A constant value that represents the month of April.

AUGUST

public final static int AUGUST

Description

A constant value that represents the month of August.

DATE

public final static int DATE

Description

A field constant that represents the day of the month of this object.

DAY_OF_MONTH

public final static int DAY_OF_MONTH

Description

A field constant that represents the day of the month of this object. This field is synonymous with DATE.

DAY_OF_WEEK

public final static int DAY_OF_WEEK

Description

A field constant that represents the day of the week of this object.

DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH

public final static int DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH

Description

A field constant that represents the day of the week in the current month. For example, February 10, 1997, has a DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH value of 2 because it is the second Monday in February for that year.

DAY_OF_YEAR

public final static int DAY_OF_YEAR

Description

A field constant that represents the day of the year of this object. January 1 is the first day of the year.

DECEMBER

public final static int DECEMBER

Description

A constant value that represents the month of December.

DST_OFFSET

public final static int DST_OFFSET

Description

A field constant that represents the offset due to daylight savings time, in milliseconds, of this object.

ERA

public final static int ERA

Description

A field constant that represents the era of this object. A Gregorian calendar has two eras, BC and AD.

FEBRUARY

public final static int FEBRUARY

Description

A constant value that represents the month of February.

FIELD_COUNT

public final static int FIELD_COUNT

Description

A constant that represents the number of attribute fields for Calendar objects.

FRIDAY

public final static int FRIDAY

Description

A constant value that represents the day Friday.

HOUR

public final static int HOUR

Description

A field constant that represents the hour of this object.

HOUR_OF_DAY

public final static int HOUR_OF_DAY

Description

A field constant that represents the hour of the day of this object. A time of 1:00 P.M. has an HOUR value of 1, but an HOUR_OF_DAY value of 13.

JANUARY

public final static int JANUARY

Description

A constant value that represents the month of January.

JULY

public final static int JULY

Description

A constant value that represents the month of July.

JUNE

public final static int JUNE

Description

A constant value that represents the month of June.

MARCH

public final static int MARCH

Description

A constant value that represents the month of March.

MAY

public final static int MAY

Description

A constant value that represents the month of May.

MILLISECOND

public final static int MILLISECOND

Description

A field constant that represents the milliseconds of this object.

MINUTE

public final static int MINUTE

Description

A field constant that represents the minutes of this object.

MONDAY

public final static int MONDAY

Description

A constant value that represents the day Monday.

MONTH

public final static int MONTH

Description

A field constant that represents the month of this object.

NOVEMBER

public final static int NOVEMBER

Description

A constant value that represents the month of November.

OCTOBER

public final static int OCTOBER

Description

A constant value that represents the month of October.

PM

public final static int PM

Description

A constant value that represents afternoon and evening times.

SATURDAY

public final static int SATURDAY

Description

A constant value that represents the day Saturday.

SECOND

public final static int SECOND

Description

A field constant that represents the seconds of this object.

SEPTEMBER

public final static int SEPTEMBER

Description

A constant value that represents the month of September.

SUNDAY

public final static int SUNDAY

Description

A constant value that represents the day Sunday.

THURSDAY

public final static int THURSDAY

Description

A constant value that represents the day Thursday.

TUESDAY

public final static int TUESDAY

Description

A constant value that represents the day Tuesday.

UNDECIMBER

public final static int UNDECIMBER

Description

A constant value that represents the thirteenth month used in lunar calendars.

WEDNESDAY

public final static int WEDNESDAY

Description

A constant value that represents the day Wednesday.

WEEK_OF_MONTH

public final static int WEEK_OF_MONTH

Description

A field constant that represents the week of the month of this object.

WEEK_OF_YEAR

public final static int WEEK_OF_YEAR

Description

A field constant that represents the week of the year of this object.

YEAR

public final static int YEAR

Description

A field constant that represents the year of this object.

ZONE_OFFSET

public final static int ZONE_OFFSET

Description

A field constant that represents the raw time zone offset, in milliseconds, of this object. The value should be added to GMT to get local time.

Variables

areFieldsSet

protected boolean areFieldsSet

Description

A boolean value that indicates if the time fields of this Calendar have been set. These fields can be computed from the raw millisecond time value.

fields

protected int[] fields

Description

An array that stores the time field values for this Calendar.

isSet

protected boolean[] isSet

Description

An array that contains a flag for each entry in the fields array. The value of each flag indicates if the corresponding entry in fields has been set for this Calendar.

isTimeSet

protected boolean isTimeSet

Description

A boolean value that indicates if the raw millisecond time value of this Calendar has been set. The value can be computed from the time fields.

time

protected long time

Description

The raw time value for this Calendar. The value is the number of milliseconds since midnight, January 1, 1970 GMT.

Constructors

Calendar

protected Calendar()

Description

This constructor creates a Calendar that uses the system's default time zone and locale. The default time zone is that returned by TimeZone.getDefault(). The default locale is that returned by Locale.getDefault().

protected Calendar(TimeZone zone, Locale aLocale)

Parameters

zone

The TimeZone to use.

aLocale

The Locale to use.

Description

This constructor creates a Calendar that uses the supplied time zone and locale.

Class Methods

getAvailableLocales

public static synchronized Locale[] getAvailableLocales()

Returns

An array of Locale objects for which Calendar objects are installed.

Description

This method returns an array of locales that have corresponding Calendar objects.

getInstance

public static synchronized Calendar getInstance()

Returns

A Calendar for the default time zone and locale.

Description

This method returns a newly constructed Calendar for the default time zone and locale. Future implementations of this method may infer the subclass of Calendar to instantiate based on the default locale. However, the current implementation always returns a GregorianCalendar. The default time zone is that returned by TimeZone.getDefault(). The default locale is that returned by Locale.getDefault().

public static synchronized Calendar getInstance(TimeZone zone)

Parameters

zone

The TimeZone to use.

Returns

A Calendar for the given time zone and the default locale.

Description

This method returns a newly constructed Calendar for the given time zone and the default locale. Future implementations of this method may infer the subclass of Calendar to instantiate based on the default locale. However, the current implementation always returns a GregorianCalendar. The default locale is that returned by Locale.getDefault().

public static synchronized Calendar getInstance(Locale aLocale)

Parameters

aLocale

The Locale to use.

Returns

A Calendar for the given locale and the default time zone.

Description

This method returns a newly constructed Calendar for the given locale and the default time zone. Future implementations of this method may infer the subclass of Calendar to instantiate based on the given locale. However, the current implementation always returns a GregorianCalendar. The default time zone is that returned by TimeZone.getDefault().

public static synchronized Calendar getInstance(TimeZone zone, Locale aLocale)

Parameters

zone

The TimeZone to use.

aLocale

The Locale to use.

Returns

A Calendar for the given time zone and locale.

Description

This method returns a newly constructed Calendar for the given time zone and locale. Future implementations of this method may infer the subclass of Calendar to instantiate based on the given locale. However, the current implementation always returns a GregorianCalendar.

Instance Methods

add

public abstract void add(int field, int amount)

Parameters

field

The time field to be modified.

amount

The amount to add to the specified field value. This value can be negative.

Description

This method adds the given amount to the specified time field. For example, you can compute a date 90 days beyond the current date of this Calendar by calling add(Calendar.DATE, 90).

after

public abstract boolean after(Object when)

Parameters

when

The object to compare to this Calendar.

Returns

true if this object is after when; false otherwise.

Description

This method returns true if when is a Calendar object whose value falls before the value of this Calendar.

before

public abstract boolean before(Object when)

Parameters

when

The object to compare to this Calendar.

Returns

true if this object is before when; false otherwise.

Description

This method returns true if when is a Calendar object whose value falls after the value of this Calendar.

clear

public final void clear()

Description

This method clears the values of all of the time fields of this Calendar.

public final void clear(int field)

Parameters

field

The time field to be cleared.

Description

This method clears the specified time field by setting its value to 0.

clone

public Object clone()

Returns

A copy of this Calendar.

Overrides

Object.clone()

Description

This method creates a copy of this Calendar and returns it. In other words, the returned Calendar has the same time field values and raw time value as this Calendar.

equals

public abstract boolean equals(Object when)

Parameters

when

The object to be compared with this object.

Returns

true if the objects are equal; false if they are not.

Overrides

Object.equals()

Description

This method returns true if when is an instance of Calendar and it contains the same value as the object this method is associated with.

get

public final int get(int field)

Parameters

field

The time field to be retrieved.

Returns

The value of the given time field.

Description

This method returns the value of the specified time field. If the fields of this Calendar have not been set, they are set from the raw time value before the requested field is returned.

getFirstDayOfWeek

public int getFirstDayOfWeek()

Returns

The first day of the week for this Calendar.

Description

This method returns the day that is considered the beginning of the week for this Calendar. This value is determined by the Locale of this Calendar. For example, the first day of the week in the United States is Sunday, while in France it is Monday.

getGreatestMinimum

public abstract int getGreatestMinimum(int field)

Parameters

field

A time field constant.

Returns

The highest minimum value for the given time field.

Description

This method returns the highest minimum value for the given time field, if the field has a range of minimum values. If the field does not have a range of minimum values, this method is equivalent to getMinimum().

getLeastMaximum

public abstract int getLeastMaximum(int field)

Parameters

field

A time field constant.

Returns

The lowest maximum value for the given time field.

Description

This method returns the lowest maximum value for the given time field, if the field has a range of maximum values. If the field does not have a range of maximum values, this method is equivalent to getMaximum(). For example, for a GregorianCalendar, the lowest maximum value of DATE_OF_MONTH is 28.

getMaximum

public abstract int getMaximum(int field)

Parameters

field

A time field constant.

Returns

The maximum value for the given time field.

Description

This method returns the maximum value for the given time field. For example, for a GregorianCalendar, the maximum value of DATE_OF_MONTH is 31.

getMinimalDaysInFirstWeek

public int getMinimalDaysInFirstWeek()

Returns

The number of days that must be in the first week of the year.

Description

This method returns the number of days that must be in the first week of the year. For example, a value of 7 indicates that the first week of the year must be a full week, while a value of 1 indicates that the first week of the year can contain a single day. This value is determined by the Locale of this Calendar.

getMinimum

public abstract int getMinimum(int field)

Parameters

field

A time field constant.

Returns

The minimum value for the given time field.

Description

This method returns the minimum value for the given time field. For example, for a GregorianCalendar, the minimum value of DATE_OF_MONTH is 1.

getTime

public final Date getTime()

Returns

A Date object that represents the point in time represented by this Calendar.

Description

This method returns a newly created Date object that is constructed from the value returned by getTimeInMillis().

getTimeZone

public TimeZone getTimeZone()

Returns

The TimeZone of this Calendar.

Description

This method returns the TimeZone object for this Calendar.

isLenient

public boolean isLenient()

Returns

A boolean value that indicates the leniency of this Calendar.

Description

This method returns the current leniency of this Calendar. A value of false indicates that the Calendar throws exceptions when questionable data is passed to it, while a value of true indicates that the Calendar makes its best guess to interpret questionable data. For example, if the Calendar is being lenient, a date such as March 135, 1997 is interpreted as the 134th day after March 1, 1997.

isSet

public final boolean isSet(int field)

Parameters

field

A time field constant.

Returns

true if the time field has been set; false otherwise.

Description

This method returns a boolean value that indicates whether or not the specified time field has been set.

roll

public abstract void roll(int field, boolean up)

Parameters

field

The time field to be adjusted.

up

A boolean value that indicates if the given field should be incremented.

Description

This method adds or subtracts one time unit from the given time field. For example, to increase the current date by one day, you can call roll(Calendar.DATE, true).

The method maintains the field being rolled within its valid range. For example, in a calendar system that uses hours and minutes to measure time, rolling the minutes up from 59 sets that field to 0. By the same token, rolling that field down from 0 sets it to 59.

The roll() method does not adjust the value of any other field than the one specified by its field argument. In particular, for calendar systems that have months with different numbers of days, it may be necessary to adjust the month and also year when the day of the month is rolled up. It is the responsibility of the caller of roll() to perform that adjustment.

set

public final void set(int field, int value)

Parameters

field

The time field to be set.

value

The new value.

Description

This method sets the value of the specified time field.

public final void set(int year, int month, int date)

Parameters

year

The value for the year field.

month

The value for the month field, where 0 represents the first month.

date

The value for the day-of-the-month field.

Description

This method sets the values of the year, month, and day-of-the-month fields of this Calendar.

 public final void set(int year, int month, int date, int hour, int minute) 

Parameters

year

The value for the year field.

month

The value for the month field, where 0 represents the first month.

date

The value for the day-of-the-month field.

hour

The value for the hour field.

minute

The value for the minute field.

Description

This method sets the values of the year, month, day-of-the-month, hour, and minute fields of this Calendar.

 public final void set(int year, int month, int date, int hour, int minute, int second) 

Parameters

year

The value for the year field.

month

The value for the month field, where 0 represents the first month.

date

The value for the day-of-the-month field.

hour

The value for the hour field.

minute

The value for the minute field.

second

The value for the second field.

Description

This method sets the values of the year, month, day-of-the-month, hour, minute, and second fields of this Calendar.

setFirstDayOfWeek

public void setFirstDayofWeek(int value)

Parameters

value

The value for the first day of the week.

Description

This method sets the day that is considered the beginning of the week for this Calendar. This value should be determined by the Locale of this Calendar. For example, the first day of the week in the United States is Sunday; in France it's Monday.

setLenient

public void setLenient(boolean lenient)

Parameters

lenient

A boolean value that specifies the leniency of this Calendar.

Description

This method sets the leniency of this Calendar. A value of false specifies that the Calendar throws exceptions when questionable data is passed to it, while a value of true indicates that the Calendar makes its best guess to interpret questionable data. For example, if the Calendar is being lenient, a date such as March 135, 1997 is interpreted as the 135th day after March 1, 1997.

setMinimalDaysInFirstWeek

public void setMinimalDaysInFirstWeek(int value)

Parameters

value

The value for the minimum number of days in the first week of the year.

Description

This method sets the minimum number of days in the first week of the year. For example, a value of 7 indicates the first week of the year must be a full week, while a value of 1 indicates the first week of the year can contain a single day. This value should be determined by the Locale of this Calendar.

setTime

public final void setTime(Date date)

Parameters

date

A Date object that represents the new time value.

Description

This method sets the point in time that is represented by this Calendar.

setTimeZone

public void setTimeZone(TimeZone value)

Parameters

value

A TimeZone object that represents the new time zone.

Description

This method is used to set the time zone of this Calendar.

Protected Instance Methods

complete

protected void complete()

Description

This method fills out the fields of this Calendar as much as possible by calling computeTime() and computeFields().

computeFields

protected abstract void computeFields()

Description

This method calculates the time fields of this Calendar from its raw time value.

computeTime

protected abstract void computeTime()

Description

This method calculates the raw time value of this Calendar from its time field values.

getTimeInMillis

protected long getTimeInMillis()

Returns

The raw time value of this Calendar.

Description

This method returns the raw time value of this Calendar. The value is measured as the number of milliseconds since midnight, January 1, 1970 GMT.

internalGet

protected final int internalGet(int field)

Parameters

field

A time field constant.

Returns

The value of the given time field.

Description

This method returns the value of the specified time field without first checking to see if it needs to be computed from the raw time value.

setTimeInMillis

protected void setTimeInMillis(long millis)

Parameters

millis

The new raw time value for this Calendar.

Description

This method sets the raw time value of this Calendar. The value is measured as the number of milliseconds since midnight, January 1, 1970 GMT.

Inherited Methods

Method

Inherited From

Method

Inherited From

finalize()

Object

getClass()

Object

hashCode()

Object

notify()

Object

notifyAll()

Object

toString()

Object

wait()

Object

wait(long)

Object

wait(long, int)

Object

   

See Also

Cloneable, Date, DateFormat, GregorianCalendar, Locale, Serializable, TimeZone


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